A grammar of Yauyos Quechua
Free

A grammar of Yauyos Quechua

By Aviva Shimelman
Free
Book Description

This book presents a synchronic grammar of the southern dialects of Yauyos, an extremely endangered Quechuan language spoken in the Peruvian Andes. As the language is highly synthetic, the grammar focuses principally on morphology; a longer section is dedicated to the language's unusual evidential system. The grammar's 1400 examples are drawn from a 24-hour corpus of transcribed recordings collected in the course of the documentation of the language.

Table of Contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • Notational conventions
  • 1 Introduction
    • 1.1 Location
    • 1.2 Endangerment
    • 1.3 Existing documentation
    • 1.4 The dialects of Yauyos
    • 1.5 Classification
    • 1.6 Presentation
    • 1.7 Fieldwork
    • 1.8 A note to Quechuanists and typologists
    • 1.9 Broader interest
      • 1.9.1 Semantics – evidentials
      • 1.9.2 Language contact – lan]AymaraAymara
  • 2 Phonology and morphophonemics
    • 2.1 Introduction and summary
    • 2.2 Syllable structure and stress pattern
    • 2.3 Phonemic inventory and morphophonemics
    • 2.4 Spanish loan words
      • 2.4.1 Spanish loan word restructuring
      • 2.4.2 Loan word orthography
  • 3 Substantives
    • 3.1 Parts of speech
    • 3.2 Substantive classes
      • 3.2.1 Nouns
        • 3.2.1.1 Regular nouns
        • 3.2.1.2 Time nouns
        • 3.2.1.3 Gender nouns
        • 3.2.1.4 Locative nouns
      • 3.2.2 Pronouns
        • 3.2.2.1 Personal pronouns ñuqa, qam, pay
        • 3.2.2.2 Demonstrative pronouns kay, chay, wak
          • 3.2.2.2.1 Determiners
        • 3.2.2.3 Dependent pronouns kiki-, Sapa-, llapa-, kuska-
      • 3.2.3 Interrogative-indefinites pi, ima, imay, imayna, mayqin, imapaq, ayka
      • 3.2.4 Adjectives
        • 3.2.4.1 Regular adjectives
        • 3.2.4.2 Adverbial adjectives
        • 3.2.4.3 Gender adjectives
        • 3.2.4.4 Preadjectives
      • 3.2.5 Numerals
        • 3.2.5.1 General numerals
        • 3.2.5.2 Ordinal numerals
        • 3.2.5.3 Time numerals and pre-numerals
        • 3.2.5.4 Numerals with possessive suffixes
        • 3.2.5.5 huk
      • 3.2.6 Multiple-class substantives
      • 3.2.7 Dummy na
    • 3.3 Substantive inflection
      • 3.3.1 Possessive (person)
      • 3.3.2 Number -kuna
      • 3.3.3 Case
        • 3.3.3.1 Simulative -hina
        • 3.3.3.2 Limitative -kama
        • 3.3.3.3 Allative, dative -man
        • 3.3.3.4 Genitive, locative -pa1, -pa2
        • 3.3.3.5 Ablative, benefactive, purposive -paq
        • 3.3.3.6 Locative -pi
        • 3.3.3.7 Exclusive -puRa
        • 3.3.3.8 Reason -rayku
        • 3.3.3.9 Accusative -Kta and -ta
        • 3.3.3.10 Instrumental, comitative -wan
        • 3.3.3.11 Possible combinations
        • 3.3.3.12 More specific noun-noun relations
    • 3.4 Substantive derivation
      • 3.4.1 Substantive derived from verbs
        • 3.4.1.1 -na
        • 3.4.1.2 Agentive -q
        • 3.4.1.3 Perfective -sHa
        • 3.4.1.4 Infinitive -y
      • 3.4.2 Substantives derived from substantives
        • 3.4.2.1 Non-exhaustivity -kuna2
        • 3.4.2.2 Accompaniment, adjacency -ntin
        • 3.4.2.3 Multiple possession -sapa
        • 3.4.2.4 Possession -yuq
        • 3.4.2.5 Partnership -masi
        • 3.4.2.6 Restrictive suffix: -cha
  • 4 Verbs
    • 4.1 Verb stems
    • 4.2 Types of verbs
      • 4.2.1 Transitive verbs
      • 4.2.2 Intransitive verbs
      • 4.2.3 Copulative/equational verbs
      • 4.2.4 Onomatopoetic verbs
    • 4.3 Verb inflection
      • 4.3.1 Summary
      • 4.3.2 Person and number
        • 4.3.2.1 Subject
        • 4.3.2.2 Actor and object reference
      • 4.3.3 Tense
        • 4.3.3.1 Simple present
        • 4.3.3.2 Future
        • 4.3.3.3 Past
          • 4.3.3.3.1 Simple past -RQa
          • 4.3.3.3.2 Quotative simple past tense -sHQa
          • 4.3.3.3.3 Perfect
          • 4.3.3.3.4 Habitual past -q ka-
      • 4.3.4 Conditional
        • 4.3.4.1 Regular conditional (potential) -man
        • 4.3.4.2 Modality
        • 4.3.4.3 Alternative conditional -waq and -chuwan
        • 4.3.4.4 Past conditional (irrealis)
      • 4.3.5 Imperative and injunctive
        • 4.3.5.1 Imperative -y
        • 4.3.5.2 Injunctive -chun
      • 4.3.6 Aspect
        • 4.3.6.1 Continuous -ya
        • 4.3.6.2 Durative -chka
        • 4.3.6.3 Perfective -ku
      • 4.3.7 Subordination
        • 4.3.7.1 Different subjects -pti
        • 4.3.7.2 Same-subjects -shpa
        • 4.3.7.3 Adverbial -shtin
        • 4.3.7.4 Limitative -kama
    • 4.4 Verb derivation
      • 4.4.1 Suffixes deriving verbs from substantives
        • 4.4.1.1 Factive -cha
        • 4.4.1.2 Reflexive -ku
        • 4.4.1.3 Simulative -tuku
        • 4.4.1.4 Inchoative -ya
        • 4.4.1.5 ‘To do’ na-
        • 4.4.1.6 Sensual and psychological necessity naya-
      • 4.4.2 Verbs derived from verbs
        • 4.4.2.1 Distribution of VV derivational suffixes
        • 4.4.2.2 Morphophonemics
        • 4.4.2.3 Individual derivational and complementary suffixes
          • 4.4.2.3.1 -cha
          • 4.4.2.3.2 Causative -chi, -chi-ku
          • 4.4.2.3.3 Passive/accidental -ka
          • 4.4.2.3.4 Iterative -katra
          • 4.4.2.3.5 Reflexive, middle, medio-passive, passive -kU
          • 4.4.2.3.6 Restrictive, limitative -lla
          • 4.4.2.3.7 -mu
          • 4.4.2.3.8 Reciprocal -nakU
          • 4.4.2.3.9 -naya
          • 4.4.2.3.10 Repetitive -pa
          • 4.4.2.3.11 -pU
          • 4.4.2.3.12 Joint action -pa(:)kU
          • 4.4.2.3.13 Mutual benefit -pakU
          • 4.4.2.3.14 Uninterrupted action -Ra
          • 4.4.2.3.15 Inceptive -Ri
          • 4.4.2.3.16 Urgency, personal interest -RU
          • 4.4.2.3.17 Accompaniment -sHi
          • 4.4.2.3.18 Irreversible change -tamu
          • 4.4.2.3.19 Intensive -ya, -raya, -paya
          • 4.4.2.3.20 Exceptional -YkU
  • 5 Particles
    • 5.1 Interjections
    • 5.2 Assenters and greetings
    • 5.3 Prepositions
    • 5.4 Adverbs
    • 5.5 Particles covered elsewhere
  • 6 Enclitics
    • 6.1 Sequence
    • 6.2 Individual enclitics
      • 6.2.1 Emphatic -Yá
      • 6.2.2 Interrogation, negation, disjunction -chu
      • 6.2.3 Restrictive, limitative -lla
      • 6.2.4 Discontinuative -ña
      • 6.2.5 Inclusion -pis
      • 6.2.6 Precision, certainty -puni
      • 6.2.7 Topic-marking -qa
      • 6.2.8 Continuative -Raq
      • 6.2.9 Sequential -taq
      • 6.2.10 Emotive -ya
      • 6.2.11 Evidence
        • 6.2.11.1 Direct -mI
        • 6.2.11.2 Reportative -shI
        • 6.2.11.3 Conjectural -trI
        • 6.2.11.4 Evidential modification
          • 6.2.11.4.1 Assertive force -aRi
          • 6.2.11.4.2 Evidence strength -ik and -iki
        • 6.2.11.5 Evidentials in questions
  • 7 Syntax
    • 7.1 Constituent order
    • 7.2 Sentences
    • 7.3 Coordination
    • 7.4 Comparison
    • 7.5 Negation
    • 7.6 Interrogation
    • 7.7 Reflexives and reciprocals
    • 7.8 Equatives
    • 7.9 Possession
    • 7.10 Topic
    • 7.11 Focus
    • 7.12 Complementation (infinitive, agentive, indicative and subjunctive clauses)
    • 7.13 Relativization
    • 7.14 Subordination
  • Appendix A: Analysis of the Southern Yauyos Quechua lexicon
  • Appendix B: Further analysis of evidential modifiers
    • B.1 The EM’s and the interpretation of propositions under direct -mI
    • B.2 The EM’s and the interpretation of propositions under conjectural -trI
    • B.3 A sociolinguistic note
  • References
  • Index
    • Name index
    • Language index
    • Subject index
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