A grammar of Yauyos Quechua
Aviva Shimelman
Politics & Social Sciences
A grammar of Yauyos Quechua
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This book presents a synchronic grammar of the southern dialects of Yauyos, an extremely endangered Quechuan language spoken in the Peruvian Andes. As the language is highly synthetic, the grammar focuses principally on morphology; a longer section is dedicated to the language's unusual evidential system. The grammar's 1400 examples are drawn from a 24-hour corpus of transcribed recordings collected in the course of the documentation of the language.

Notational conventions
1 Introduction
1.1 Location
1.2 Endangerment
1.3 Existing documentation
1.4 The dialects of Yauyos
1.5 Classification
1.6 Presentation
1.7 Fieldwork
1.8 A note to Quechuanists and typologists
1.9 Broader interest
1.9.1 Semantics – evidentials
1.9.2 Language contact – lan]AymaraAymara
2 Phonology and morphophonemics
2.1 Introduction and summary
2.2 Syllable structure and stress pattern
2.3 Phonemic inventory and morphophonemics
2.4 Spanish loan words
2.4.1 Spanish loan word restructuring
2.4.2 Loan word orthography
3 Substantives
3.1 Parts of speech
3.2 Substantive classes
3.2.1 Nouns Regular nouns Time nouns Gender nouns Locative nouns
3.2.2 Pronouns Personal pronouns ñuqa, qam, pay Demonstrative pronouns kay, chay, wak Determiners Dependent pronouns kiki-, Sapa-, llapa-, kuska-
3.2.3 Interrogative-indefinites pi, ima, imay, imayna, mayqin, imapaq, ayka
3.2.4 Adjectives Regular adjectives Adverbial adjectives Gender adjectives Preadjectives
3.2.5 Numerals General numerals Ordinal numerals Time numerals and pre-numerals Numerals with possessive suffixes huk
3.2.6 Multiple-class substantives
3.2.7 Dummy na
3.3 Substantive inflection
3.3.1 Possessive (person)
3.3.2 Number -kuna
3.3.3 Case Simulative -hina Limitative -kama Allative, dative -man Genitive, locative -pa1, -pa2 Ablative, benefactive, purposive -paq Locative -pi Exclusive -puRa Reason -rayku Accusative -Kta and -ta Instrumental, comitative -wan Possible combinations More specific noun-noun relations
3.4 Substantive derivation
3.4.1 Substantive derived from verbs -na Agentive -q Perfective -sHa Infinitive -y
3.4.2 Substantives derived from substantives Non-exhaustivity -kuna2 Accompaniment, adjacency -ntin Multiple possession -sapa Possession -yuq Partnership -masi Restrictive suffix: -cha
4 Verbs
4.1 Verb stems
4.2 Types of verbs
4.2.1 Transitive verbs
4.2.2 Intransitive verbs
4.2.3 Copulative/equational verbs
4.2.4 Onomatopoetic verbs
4.3 Verb inflection
4.3.1 Summary
4.3.2 Person and number Subject Actor and object reference
4.3.3 Tense Simple present Future Past Simple past -RQa Quotative simple past tense -sHQa Perfect Habitual past -q ka-
4.3.4 Conditional Regular conditional (potential) -man Modality Alternative conditional -waq and -chuwan Past conditional (irrealis)
4.3.5 Imperative and injunctive Imperative -y Injunctive -chun
4.3.6 Aspect Continuous -ya Durative -chka Perfective -ku
4.3.7 Subordination Different subjects -pti Same-subjects -shpa Adverbial -shtin Limitative -kama
4.4 Verb derivation
4.4.1 Suffixes deriving verbs from substantives Factive -cha Reflexive -ku Simulative -tuku Inchoative -ya ‘To do’ na- Sensual and psychological necessity naya-
4.4.2 Verbs derived from verbs Distribution of VV derivational suffixes Morphophonemics Individual derivational and complementary suffixes -cha Causative -chi, -chi-ku Passive/accidental -ka Iterative -katra Reflexive, middle, medio-passive, passive -kU Restrictive, limitative -lla -mu Reciprocal -nakU -naya Repetitive -pa -pU Joint action -pa(:)kU Mutual benefit -pakU Uninterrupted action -Ra Inceptive -Ri Urgency, personal interest -RU Accompaniment -sHi Irreversible change -tamu Intensive -ya, -raya, -paya Exceptional -YkU
5 Particles
5.1 Interjections
5.2 Assenters and greetings
5.3 Prepositions
5.4 Adverbs
5.5 Particles covered elsewhere
6 Enclitics
6.1 Sequence
6.2 Individual enclitics
6.2.1 Emphatic -Yá
6.2.2 Interrogation, negation, disjunction -chu
6.2.3 Restrictive, limitative -lla
6.2.4 Discontinuative -ña
6.2.5 Inclusion -pis
6.2.6 Precision, certainty -puni
6.2.7 Topic-marking -qa
6.2.8 Continuative -Raq
6.2.9 Sequential -taq
6.2.10 Emotive -ya
6.2.11 Evidence Direct -mI Reportative -shI Conjectural -trI Evidential modification Assertive force -aRi Evidence strength -ik and -iki Evidentials in questions
7 Syntax
7.1 Constituent order
7.2 Sentences
7.3 Coordination
7.4 Comparison
7.5 Negation
7.6 Interrogation
7.7 Reflexives and reciprocals
7.8 Equatives
7.9 Possession
7.10 Topic
7.11 Focus
7.12 Complementation (infinitive, agentive, indicative and subjunctive clauses)
7.13 Relativization
7.14 Subordination
Appendix A: Analysis of the Southern Yauyos Quechua lexicon
Appendix B: Further analysis of evidential modifiers
B.1 The EM’s and the interpretation of propositions under direct -mI
B.2 The EM’s and the interpretation of propositions under conjectural -trI
B.3 A sociolinguistic note
Name index
Language index
Subject index
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