Forall X: An Introduction to Formal Logic
P. D. Magnus
Computers & Technology
Forall X: An Introduction to Formal Logic

In formal logic, sentences and arguments are translated into mathematical languages with well-defined properties. If all goes well, properties of the argument that were hard to discern become clearer. This text describes two formal languages which have been of special importance to philosophers: truth-functional sentential logic and quantified predicate logic. The book covers translation, formal semantics, and proof theory for both languages.This can be used as the textbook for a semester long course in logic, for a unit on logic, or for self-directed study. Each chapter contains practice exercises; solutions to selected exercises appear in an appendix.The author is an assistant professor of philosophy at the University at Albany, SUNY. For more information, see the forall x homepage and the author's homepage.

What is logic?
Two ways that arguments can go wrong
Deductive validity
Other logical notions
Formal languages
Practice Exercises
Sentential logic
Sentence letters
Other symbolization
Sentences of SL
Practice Exercises
Truth tables
Truth-functional connectives
Complete truth tables
Using truth tables
Partial truth tables
Practice Exercises
Quantified logic
From sentences to predicates
Building blocks of QL
Translating to QL
Sentences of QL
Practice Exercises
Formal semantics
Semantics for SL
Interpretations and models in QL
Semantics for identity
Working with models
Truth in QL
Practice Exercises
Basic rules for SL
Derived rules
Rules of replacement
Rules for quantifiers
Rules for identity
Proof strategy
Proof-theoretic concepts
Proofs and models
Soundness and completeness
Practice Exercises
Other symbolic notation
Solutions to selected exercises
C Quick Reference
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