Ubuntu Server Guide 14.04 LTS
Free

Ubuntu Server Guide 14.04 LTS

By Ubuntu Documentation Project
Free
Book Description

The leading platform for scale-out computing, Ubuntu Server helps you make the most of your infrastructure. Whether you want to deploy an OpenStack cloud, a Hadoop cluster or a 50,000-node render farm, Ubuntu Server delivers the best value scale-out performance available.



Here you can find information on how to install and configure various server applications. It is a step-by-step, task-oriented guide for configuring and customizing your system.



This guide assumes you have a basic understanding of your Ubuntu system. Some installation details are covered in Installation, but if you need detailed instructions installing Ubuntu please refer to the Ubuntu Installation Guide.



A HTML version of the manual is available online at the Ubuntu Documentation website.

Table of Contents
  • Ubuntu Server Guide
  • Table of Contents
  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    • 1. Support
  • Chapter 2. Installation
    • 1. Preparing to Install
      • 1.1. System Requirements
      • 1.2. Server and Desktop Differences
        • 1.2.1. Kernel Differences:
      • 1.3. Backing Up
    • 2. Installing from CD
      • 2.1. Package Tasks
    • 3. Upgrading
      • 3.1. do-release-upgrade
    • 4. Advanced Installation
      • 4.1. Software RAID
        • 4.1.1. Partitioning
        • 4.1.2. RAID Configuration
        • 4.1.3. Formatting
        • 4.1.4. Degraded RAID
        • 4.1.5. RAID Maintenance
        • 4.1.6. Resources
      • 4.2. Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
        • 4.2.1. Overview
        • 4.2.2. Installation
        • 4.2.3. Extending Volume Groups
        • 4.2.4. Resources
    • 5. Kernel Crash Dump
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Kernel Crash Dump Mechanism
      • 5.3. Installation
      • 5.4. Configuration
      • 5.5. Verification
      • 5.6. Testing the Crash Dump Mechanism
      • 5.7. Resources
  • Chapter 3. Package Management
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. dpkg
    • 3. Apt-Get
    • 4. Aptitude
      • 4.1. Command Line Aptitude
    • 5. Automatic Updates
      • 5.1. Notifications
    • 6. Configuration
      • 6.1. Extra Repositories
    • 7. References
  • Chapter 4. Networking
    • 1. Network Configuration
      • 1.1. Ethernet Interfaces
        • 1.1.1. Identify Ethernet Interfaces
        • 1.1.2. Ethernet Interface Logical Names
        • 1.1.3. Ethernet Interface Settings
      • 1.2. IP Addressing
        • 1.2.1. Temporary IP Address Assignment
        • 1.2.2. Dynamic IP Address Assignment (DHCP Client)
        • 1.2.3. Static IP Address Assignment
        • 1.2.4. Loopback Interface
      • 1.3. Name Resolution
        • 1.3.1. DNS Client Configuration
        • 1.3.2. Static Hostnames
        • 1.3.3. Name Service Switch Configuration
      • 1.4. Bridging
      • 1.5. Resources
    • 2. TCP/IP
      • 2.1. TCP/IP Introduction
      • 2.2. TCP/IP Configuration
      • 2.3. IP Routing
      • 2.4. TCP and UDP
      • 2.5. ICMP
      • 2.6. Daemons
      • 2.7. Resources
    • 3. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
      • 3.1. Installation
      • 3.2. Configuration
      • 3.3. References
    • 4. Time Synchronisation with NTP
      • 4.1. ntpdate
      • 4.2. ntpd
      • 4.3. Installation
      • 4.4. Configuration
      • 4.5. View status
      • 4.6. References
  • Chapter 5. DM-Multipath
    • 1. Device Mapper Multipathing
      • 1.1. New and Changed Features for Ubuntu Server 12.04
        • 1.1.1. Migration from 0.4.8
      • 1.2. Overview
      • 1.3. Storage Array Overview
      • 1.4. DM-Multipath components
      • 1.5. DM-Multipath Setup Overview
    • 2. Multipath Devices
      • 2.1. Multipath Device Identifiers
      • 2.2. Consistent Multipath Device Names in a Cluster
      • 2.3. Multipath Device attributes
      • 2.4. Multipath Devices in Logical Volumes
    • 3. Setting up DM-Multipath Overview
      • 3.1. Setting Up DM-Multipath
      • 3.2. Installing with Multipath Support
      • 3.3. Ignoring Local Disks When Generating Multipath Devices
      • 3.4. Configuring Storage Devices
    • 4. The DM-Multipath Configuration File
      • 4.1. Configuration File Overview
      • 4.2. Configuration File Blacklist
        • 4.2.1. Blacklisting By WWID
        • 4.2.2. Blacklisting By Device Name
        • 4.2.3. Blacklisting By Device Type
        • 4.2.4. Blacklist Exceptions
      • 4.3. Configuration File Defaults
      • 4.4. Configuration File Multipath Attributes
      • 4.5. Configuration File Devices
    • 5. DM-Multipath Administration and Troubleshooting
      • 5.1. Resizing an Online Multipath Device
      • 5.2. Moving root File Systems from a Single Path Device to a Multipath Device
      • 5.3. Moving swap File Systems from a Single Path Device to a Multipath Device
      • 5.4. The Multipath Daemon
      • 5.5. Issues with queue_if_no_path
      • 5.6. Multipath Command Output
      • 5.7. Multipath Queries with multipath Command
      • 5.8. Multipath Command Options
      • 5.9. Determining Device Mapper Entries with dmsetup Command
      • 5.10. Troubleshooting with the multipathd interactive console
  • Chapter 6. Remote Administration
    • 1. OpenSSH Server
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Installation
      • 1.3. Configuration
      • 1.4. SSH Keys
      • 1.5. References
    • 2. Puppet
      • 2.1. Preconfiguration
      • 2.2. Installation
      • 2.3. Configuration
      • 2.4. Resources
    • 3. Zentyal
      • 3.1. Installation
      • 3.2. First steps
      • 3.3. References
  • Chapter 7. Network Authentication
    • 1. OpenLDAP Server
      • 1.1. Installation
      • 1.2. Post-install Inspection
      • 1.3. Modifying/Populating your Database
      • 1.4. Modifying the slapd Configuration Database
      • 1.5. Logging
      • 1.6. Replication
        • 1.6.1. Provider Configuration
        • 1.6.2. Consumer Configuration
        • 1.6.3. Testing
      • 1.7. Access Control
      • 1.8. TLS
      • 1.9. Replication and TLS
      • 1.10. LDAP Authentication
      • 1.11. User and Group Management
      • 1.12. Backup and Restore
      • 1.13. Resources
    • 2. Samba and LDAP
      • 2.1. Software Installation
      • 2.2. LDAP Configuration
        • 2.2.1. Samba schema
        • 2.2.2. Samba indices
        • 2.2.3. Adding Samba LDAP objects
      • 2.3. Samba Configuration
      • 2.4. Resources
    • 3. Kerberos
      • 3.1. Overview
      • 3.2. Kerberos Server
        • 3.2.1. Installation
        • 3.2.2. Configuration
      • 3.3. Secondary KDC
      • 3.4. Kerberos Linux Client
        • 3.4.1. Installation
        • 3.4.2. Configuration
      • 3.5. Resources
    • 4. Kerberos and LDAP
      • 4.1. Configuring OpenLDAP
      • 4.2. Primary KDC Configuration
      • 4.3. Secondary KDC Configuration
      • 4.4. Resources
  • Chapter 8. Domain Name Service (DNS)
    • 1. Installation
    • 2. Configuration
      • 2.1. Overview
      • 2.2. Caching Nameserver
      • 2.3. Primary Master
        • 2.3.1. Forward Zone File
        • 2.3.2. Reverse Zone File
      • 2.4. Secondary Master
    • 3. Troubleshooting
      • 3.1. Testing
        • 3.1.1. resolv.conf
        • 3.1.2. dig
        • 3.1.3. ping
        • 3.1.4. named-checkzone
      • 3.2. Logging
    • 4. References
      • 4.1. Common Record Types
      • 4.2. More Information
  • Chapter 9. Security
    • 1. User Management
      • 1.1. Where is root?
      • 1.2. Adding and Deleting Users
      • 1.3. User Profile Security
      • 1.4. Password Policy
        • 1.4.1. Minimum Password Length
        • 1.4.2. Password Expiration
      • 1.5. Other Security Considerations
        • 1.5.1. SSH Access by Disabled Users
        • 1.5.2. External User Database Authentication
    • 2. Console Security
      • 2.1. Disable Ctrl+Alt+Delete
    • 3. Firewall
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. ufw - Uncomplicated Firewall
        • 3.2.1. ufw Application Integration
      • 3.3. IP Masquerading
        • 3.3.1. ufw Masquerading
        • 3.3.2. iptables Masquerading
      • 3.4. Logs
      • 3.5. Other Tools
      • 3.6. References
    • 4. AppArmor
      • 4.1. Using AppArmor
      • 4.2. Profiles
        • 4.2.1. Creating a Profile
        • 4.2.2. Updating Profiles
      • 4.3. References
    • 5. Certificates
      • 5.1. Types of Certificates
      • 5.2. Generating a Certificate Signing Request (CSR)
      • 5.3. Creating a Self-Signed Certificate
      • 5.4. Installing the Certificate
      • 5.5. Certification Authority
      • 5.6. References
    • 6. eCryptfs
      • 6.1. Using eCryptfs
      • 6.2. Automatically Mounting Encrypted Partitions
      • 6.3. Other Utilities
      • 6.4. References
  • Chapter 10. Monitoring
    • 1. Overview
    • 2. Nagios
      • 2.1. Installation
      • 2.2. Configuration Overview
      • 2.3. Configuration
      • 2.4. References
    • 3. Munin
      • 3.1. Installation
      • 3.2. Configuration
      • 3.3. Additional Plugins
      • 3.4. References
  • Chapter 11. Web Servers
    • 1. HTTPD - Apache2 Web Server
      • 1.1. Installation
      • 1.2. Configuration
        • 1.2.1. Basic Settings
        • 1.2.2. Default Settings
        • 1.2.3. httpd Settings
        • 1.2.4. Apache2 Modules
      • 1.3. HTTPS Configuration
      • 1.4. Sharing Write Permission
      • 1.5. References
    • 2. PHP5 - Scripting Language
      • 2.1. Installation
      • 2.2. Configuration
      • 2.3. Testing
      • 2.4. References
    • 3. Squid - Proxy Server
      • 3.1. Installation
      • 3.2. Configuration
      • 3.3. References
    • 4. Ruby on Rails
      • 4.1. Installation
      • 4.2. Configuration
      • 4.3. References
    • 5. Apache Tomcat
      • 5.1. System-wide installation
      • 5.2. Configuration
        • 5.2.1. Changing default ports
        • 5.2.2. Changing JVM used
        • 5.2.3. Declaring users and roles
      • 5.3. Using Tomcat standard webapps
        • 5.3.1. Tomcat documentation
        • 5.3.2. Tomcat administration webapps
        • 5.3.3. Tomcat examples webapps
      • 5.4. Using private instances
        • 5.4.1. Installing private instance support
        • 5.4.2. Creating a private instance
        • 5.4.3. Configuring your private instance
        • 5.4.4. Starting/stopping your private instance
      • 5.5. References
  • Chapter 12. Databases
    • 1. MySQL
      • 1.1. Installation
      • 1.2. Configuration
      • 1.3. Database Engines
      • 1.4. Advanced configuration
        • 1.4.1. Creating a tuned my.cnf file
        • 1.4.2. MySQL Tuner
      • 1.5. Resources
    • 2. PostgreSQL
      • 2.1. Installation
      • 2.2. Configuration
      • 2.3. Backups
      • 2.4. Resources
  • Chapter 13. LAMP Applications
    • 1. Overview
    • 2. Moin Moin
      • 2.1. Installation
      • 2.2. Configuration
      • 2.3. Verification
      • 2.4. References
    • 3. MediaWiki
      • 3.1. Installation
      • 3.2. Configuration
      • 3.3. Extensions
      • 3.4. References
    • 4. phpMyAdmin
      • 4.1. Installation
      • 4.2. Configuration
      • 4.3. References
    • 5. WordPress
      • 5.1. Installation
      • 5.2. Configuration
      • 5.3. References
  • Chapter 14. File Servers
    • 1. FTP Server
      • 1.1. vsftpd - FTP Server Installation
      • 1.2. Anonymous FTP Configuration
      • 1.3. User Authenticated FTP Configuration
      • 1.4. Securing FTP
      • 1.5. References
    • 2. Network File System (NFS)
      • 2.1. Installation
      • 2.2. Configuration
      • 2.3. NFS Client Configuration
      • 2.4. References
    • 3. iSCSI Initiator
      • 3.1. iSCSI Initiator Install
      • 3.2. iSCSI Initiator Configuration
      • 3.3. References
    • 4. CUPS - Print Server
      • 4.1. Installation
      • 4.2. Configuration
      • 4.3. Web Interface
      • 4.4. References
  • Chapter 15. Email Services
    • 1. Postfix
      • 1.1. Installation
      • 1.2. Basic Configuration
      • 1.3. SMTP Authentication
      • 1.4. Configuring SASL
      • 1.5. Mail-Stack Delivery
      • 1.6. Testing
      • 1.7. Troubleshooting
        • 1.7.1. Escaping chroot
        • 1.7.2. Smtps
        • 1.7.3. Log Files
        • 1.7.4. References
    • 2. Exim4
      • 2.1. Installation
      • 2.2. Configuration
      • 2.3. SMTP Authentication
      • 2.4. Configuring SASL
      • 2.5. References
    • 3. Dovecot Server
      • 3.1. Installation
      • 3.2. Configuration
      • 3.3. Dovecot SSL Configuration
      • 3.4. Firewall Configuration for an Email Server
      • 3.5. References
    • 4. Mailman
      • 4.1. Installation
        • 4.1.1. Apache2
        • 4.1.2. Postfix
        • 4.1.3. Exim4
        • 4.1.4. Mailman
      • 4.2. Configuration
        • 4.2.1. Apache2
        • 4.2.2. Postfix
        • 4.2.3. Exim4
        • 4.2.4. Main
        • 4.2.5. Transport
        • 4.2.6. Router
        • 4.2.7. Mailman
      • 4.3. Administration
      • 4.4. Users
      • 4.5. References
    • 5. Mail Filtering
      • 5.1. Installation
      • 5.2. Configuration
        • 5.2.1. ClamAV
        • 5.2.2. Spamassassin
        • 5.2.3. Amavisd-new
          • 5.2.3.1. DKIM Whitelist
        • 5.2.4. Postfix
        • 5.2.5. Amavisd-new and Spamassassin
      • 5.3. Testing
      • 5.4. Troubleshooting
      • 5.5. References
  • Chapter 16. Chat Applications
    • 1. Overview
    • 2. IRC Server
      • 2.1. Installation
      • 2.2. Configuration
      • 2.3. References
    • 3. Jabber Instant Messaging Server
      • 3.1. Installation
      • 3.2. Configuration
      • 3.3. References
  • Chapter 17. Version Control System
    • 1. Bazaar
      • 1.1. Installation
      • 1.2. Configuration
      • 1.3. Learning Bazaar
      • 1.4. Launchpad Integration
    • 2. Git
      • 2.1. Installation
      • 2.2. Configuration
      • 2.3. Basic usage
      • 2.4. Installing a gitolite server
      • 2.5. Gitolite configuration
      • 2.6. Managing gitolite users and repositories
      • 2.7. Using your server
    • 3. Subversion
      • 3.1. Installation
      • 3.2. Server Configuration
        • 3.2.1. Create Subversion Repository
        • 3.2.2. Importing Files
      • 3.3. Access Methods
        • 3.3.1. Direct repository access (file://)
        • 3.3.2. Access via WebDAV protocol (http://)
        • 3.3.3. Access via WebDAV protocol with SSL encryption (https://)
        • 3.3.4. Access via custom protocol (svn://)
        • 3.3.5. Access via custom protocol with SSH encryption (svn+ssh://)
    • 4. References
  • Chapter 18. Samba
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. File Server
      • 2.1. Installation
      • 2.2. Configuration
      • 2.3. Resources
    • 3. Print Server
      • 3.1. Installation
      • 3.2. Configuration
      • 3.3. Resources
    • 4. Securing File and Print Server
      • 4.1. Samba Security Modes
      • 4.2. Security = User
      • 4.3. Share Security
        • 4.3.1. Groups
        • 4.3.2. File Permissions
      • 4.4. Samba AppArmor Profile
      • 4.5. Resources
    • 5. As a Domain Controller
      • 5.1. Primary Domain Controller
      • 5.2. Backup Domain Controller
      • 5.3. Resources
    • 6. Active Directory Integration
      • 6.1. Accessing a Samba Share
      • 6.2. Accessing a Windows Share
      • 6.3. Resources
  • Chapter 19. Backups
    • 1. Shell Scripts
      • 1.1. Simple Shell Script
      • 1.2. Executing the Script
        • 1.2.1. Executing from a Terminal
        • 1.2.2. Executing with cron
      • 1.3. Restoring from the Archive
      • 1.4. References
    • 2. Archive Rotation
      • 2.1. Rotating NFS Archives
      • 2.2. Tape Drives
    • 3. Bacula
      • 3.1. Overview
      • 3.2. Installation
      • 3.3. Configuration
      • 3.4. Localhost Backup
      • 3.5. Resources
  • Chapter 20. Virtualization
    • 1. libvirt
      • 1.1. Virtual Networking
      • 1.2. Installation
      • 1.3. virt-install
      • 1.4. virt-clone
      • 1.5. Virtual Machine Management
        • 1.5.1. virsh
        • 1.5.2. Virtual Machine Manager
      • 1.6. Virtual Machine Viewer
      • 1.7. Resources
    • 2. Cloud images and uvtool
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Creating virtual machines using uvtool
        • 2.2.1. Uvtool packages
        • 2.2.2. Get the Ubuntu Cloud Image with uvt-simplestreams-libvirt
        • 2.2.3. Create the VM using uvt-kvm
        • 2.2.4. Connect to the running VM
        • 2.2.5. Get the list of running VMs
        • 2.2.6. Destroy your VM
        • 2.2.7. More uvt-kvm options
      • 2.3. Resources
    • 3. Ubuntu Cloud
      • 3.1. Installation and Configuration
      • 3.2. Support and Troubleshooting
      • 3.3. Resources
    • 4. LXC
      • 4.1. Installation
      • 4.2. Basic usage
        • 4.2.1. Basic privileged usage
        • 4.2.2. User namespaces
        • 4.2.3. Basic unprivileged usage
        • 4.2.4. Nesting
      • 4.3. Global configuration
      • 4.4. Networking
      • 4.5. LXC startup
      • 4.6. Backing Stores
      • 4.7. Templates
      • 4.8. Autostart
      • 4.9. Apparmor
        • 4.9.1. Customizing container policies
      • 4.10. Control Groups
      • 4.11. Cloning
        • 4.11.1. Snapshots
        • 4.11.2. Ephemeral Containers
      • 4.12. Lifecycle management hooks
      • 4.13. Consoles
      • 4.14. Troubleshooting
        • 4.14.1. Logging
        • 4.14.2. Monitoring container status
        • 4.14.3. Attach
        • 4.14.4. Container init verbosity
      • 4.15. LXC API
      • 4.16. Security
        • 4.16.1. Exploitable system calls
      • 4.17. Resources
  • Chapter 21. Control Groups
    • 1. Overview
    • 2. Filesystem
    • 3. Delegation
    • 4. Manager
    • 5. Resources
  • Chapter 22. Clustering
    • 1. DRBD
      • 1.1. Configuration
      • 1.2. Testing
      • 1.3. References
  • Chapter 23. VPN
    • 1. OpenVPN
      • 1.1. Server Installation
      • 1.2. Public Key Infrastructure Setup
        • 1.2.1. Certificate Authority Setup
        • 1.2.2. Server Certificates
        • 1.2.3. Client Certificates
      • 1.3. Simple Server Configuration
      • 1.4. Simple Client Configuration
      • 1.5. First trouble shooting
      • 1.6. Advanced configuration
        • 1.6.1. Advanced routed VPN configuration on server
        • 1.6.2. Advanced bridged VPN configuration on server
          • 1.6.2.1. Prepare interface config for bridging on server
          • 1.6.2.2. Prepare server config for bridging
          • 1.6.2.3. Client Configuration
      • 1.7. Client software implementations
        • 1.7.1. Linux Network-Manager GUI for OpenVPN
        • 1.7.2. OpenVPN with GUI for Mac OS X: Tunnelblick
        • 1.7.3. OpenVPN with GUI for Win 7
        • 1.7.4. OpenVPN for OpenWRT
      • 1.8. References
  • Chapter 24. Other Useful Applications
    • 1. pam_motd
    • 2. etckeeper
    • 3. Byobu
    • 4. References
  • Appendix A. Appendix
    • 1. Reporting Bugs in Ubuntu Server Edition
      • 1.1. Reporting Bugs With apport-cli
      • 1.2. Reporting Application Crashes
      • 1.3. Resources
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