Discover Psychology 2.0 - A Brief Introductory Text
Free

Discover Psychology 2.0 - A Brief Introductory Text

By Robert Biswas-Diener (editor)
Free
Book Description

Scientific research has been one of the great drivers of progress in human history, and the dramatic changes we have seen during the past century are due primarily to scientific findings—modern medicine, electronics, automobiles and jets, birth control, and a host of other helpful inventions. Psychologists believe that scientific methods can be used in the behavioral domain to understand and improve the world. Although psychology trails the biological and physical sciences in terms of progress, we are optimistic based on discoveries to date that scientific psychology will make many important discoveries that can benefit humanity. This module outlines the characteristics of the science, and the promises it holds for understanding behavior. The ethics that guide psychological research are briefly described. It concludes with the reasons you should learn about scientific psychology.

This textbook presents core concepts common to introductory courses. The 15 units cover the traditional areas of intro-to-psychology; ranging from biological aspects of psychology to psychological disorders to social psychology. This book can be modified: feel free to add or remove modules to better suit your specific needs.

Read online at the Noba Project or get low-cost print copies.

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Copyright
  • About Noba
    • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction to Psychology as a Science
    • 1. Why Science?
      • Learning Objectives
      • Scientific Advances and World Progress
      • What Is Science?
      • Psychology as a Science
      • Psychological Science is Useful
      • Ethics of Scientific Psychology
      • Why Learn About Scientific Psychology?
      • Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Research in Psychology
    • 2. Research Designs
      • Learning Objectives
      • Research Designs
      • Experimental Research
        • Other considerations
      • Correlational Designs
        • More details about the correlation
        • Problems with the correlation
      • Qualitative Designs
      • Quasi-Experimental Designs
      • Longitudinal Studies
      • Surveys
      • Tradeoffs in Research
      • Research Methods: Why You Need Them
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 3. Conducting Psychology Research in the Real World
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Rationale for Conducting Psychology Research in the Real World
      • An Overview of Research Methods for Studying Daily Life
        • Studying Daily Experiences
        • Studying Daily Behavior
        • Studying Daily Physiology
        • Studying Online Behavior
        • “Smartphone Psychology”?
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Biology as the Basis of Behavior
    • 4. The Brain and Nervous System
      • Learning Objectives
      •  Nervous System development across the human lifespan
      •  The Central Nervous System (CNS): The Neurons inside the Brain
      •  The Central Nervous System: Looking at the Brain as a Whole
      • The Peripheral Nervous System
      • How we study the brain
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
    • 5. Evolutionary Theories in Psychology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Basics of Evolutionary Theory
      • Sexual Selection Theory
      • Gene Selection Theory
      • Evolutionary Psychology
      • Sexual Strategies Theory
      • Error Management Theory
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 6. The Nature-Nurture Question
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • What Have We Learned About Nature–Nurture?
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 7. Gender
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Gender Differences
      • Gender Roles
      • Gender Sexism and Socialization
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Developmental Psychology
    • 8. Cognitive Development in Childhood
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Nature and Nurture
      • Does Cognitive Development Progress Through Distinct Stages?
      • Applications to Education
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 9. Social and Personality Development in Childhood
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Relationships
        • Peer Relationships
      • Social Understanding
      • Personality
      • Social and Emotional Competence
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 10. Aging
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Overview: Life Span and Life Course Perspectives on Aging
      • Cognitive Aging
      • Personality and Self-Related Processes
      • Social Relationships
      • Emotion and Well-being
      • Successful Aging and Longevity
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Sensation and Perception
    • 11. Sensation and Perception
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Vision
        • How vision works
        • Dark and light adaptation
        • Color vision
      • Hearing (Audition)
        • Balance and the vestibular system
      • Touch
        • Tactile sensation
        • Pain
        • Phantom limbs
      • Smell and Taste: The Chemical Senses
        • Olfaction (smell)
        • Gustation (taste)
      • Putting it all Together: Multimodal Perception
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Consciousness
    • 12. States of Consciousness
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Levels of Awareness
        • Low Awareness
        • High Awareness
      • Other States of Consciousness
        • Hypnosis
        • Sleep
        • Psychoactive Drugs
        • Hallucinogens
        • Depressants
        • Stimulants
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Learning
    • 13. Conditioning and Learning
      • Learning Objectives
      • Two Types of Conditioning
      • Useful Things to Know about Classical Conditioning
        • Classical Conditioning Has Many Effects on Behavior
        • The Learning Process
        • Erasing Classical Learning
      • Useful Things to Know about Instrumental Conditioning
        • Instrumental Responses Come Under Stimulus Control
        • Operant Conditioning Involves Choice
        • Cognition in Instrumental Learning
      • Putting Classical and Instrumental Conditioning Together
      • Observational Learning
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Memory
    • 14. Memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval)
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Varieties of Memory
      • Three Stages of the Learning/Memory Process
      • Encoding
      • Storage
      • Retrieval
      • Putting It All Together: Improving Your Memory
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 15. Eyewitness Testimony and Memory Biases
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Is Eyewitness Testimony?
      • Why Is Eyewitness Testimony an Important Area of Psychological Research?
      • Misinformation
      • Identifying Perpetrators
      • Kinds of Memory Biases
      • False Memory
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Cognition, Language and Intelligence
    • 16. Judgment and Decision Making
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • What Would a Rational Decision Look Like?
      • Biases in Our Decision Process
        • Problem 1 (adapted from Alpert & Raiffa, 1969):
        • Problem 2 (adapted from Joyce & Biddle, 1981):
        • Problem 3 (adapted from Tversky & Kahneman, 1981):
        • Overconfidence
        • Anchoring
        • Framing
      • Contemporary Developments
      • Fixing Our Decisions
      • Concluding Thoughts
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 17. Language and Language Use
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • How Do We Use Language?
      • What Do We Talk About?
      • Psychological Consequences of Language Use
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 18. Intelligence
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Defining and Measuring Intelligence
      • Types of Intelligence
      • Correlates of Intelligence
      • Conclusion
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Emotion and Motivation
    • 19. Drive States
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Key Properties of Drive States
        • Homeostasis
        • The Narrowing of Attention
      • Two Illustrative Drive States
        • Hunger
        • Sexual Arousal
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 20. Culture and Emotion
      • Learning Objectives
      • Historical Background
      • Current and Research Theory
      • Cultural Models of Self in North American and East Asian Contexts
      • Cultural Similarities and Differences in Emotion: Comparisons of North American and East Asian Contexts
        • People’s Physiological Responses to Emotional Events Are Similar Across Cultures, but Culture Influences People’s Facial Expressive Behavior
        • People Suppress Their Emotions Across Cultures, but Culture Influences the Consequences of Suppression for Psychological Well-Being
        • People Feel Good During Positive Events, but Culture Influences Whether People Feel Bad During Positive Events
        • People Want to Feel Good Across Cultures, but Culture Influences the Specific Good States People Want to Feel (Their “Ideal Affect”)
        • People Base Their Happiness on Similar Factors Across Cultures, but Culture Influences the Weight Placed on Each Factor
      • Why Do Cultural Similarities And Differences In Emotion Matter?
      • Current Directions In Culture And Emotion Research
        • What About Other Cultures?
        • How Are Cultural Differences in Beliefs About Emotion Transmitted?
        • Could These Cultural Differences Be Due to Temperament?
      • Summary
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 21. Motives and Goals
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Origins and Manifestation of Goals
        • Goal Adoption
        • Goal Priming
        • Consequences of Goal Activation
      • Self-Regulation in Goal Pursuit
        • From Deliberation to Implementation
        • Regulation of Ought- and Ideals-Goals
        • A Cybernetic Process of Self-Regulation
        • Highlighting One Goal or Balancing Between Goals
      • Conflicting Goals and Self-Control
        • Self-Control as an Innate Ability
        • Self-Control as a Limited Resource
        • A Prerequisite to Self-Control: Identification
        • Self-Control Processes: Counteracting Temptation
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Personality
    • 22. Personality Traits
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
        • The Five-Factor Model of Personality
      • Facets of Traits (Subtraits)
      • Other Traits Beyond the Five-Factor Model
      • The Person-Situation Debate and Alternatives to the Trait Perspective
      • Appendix
        • The Mini-IPIP Scale
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 23. Personality Assessment
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Objective Tests
        • Definition
      • Basic Types of Objective Tests
        • Self-report measures
        • Informant ratings
      • Other Ways of Classifying Objective Tests
        • Comprehensiveness
        • Breadth of the target characteristics
      • Projective and Implicit Tests
        • Projective Tests
        • Implicit Tests
      • Behavioral and Performance Measures
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 24. Self and Identity
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Social Actor
      • The Motivated Agent
      • The Autobiographical Author
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Psychological Disorders
    • 25. Anxiety and Related Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
      • Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
      • Specific Phobia
      • Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)
      • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
      • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
      • Treatments for Anxiety and Related Disorders
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 26. Mood Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Are Mood Disorders?
        • Mood Episodes
        • Mood Disorders
      • How Common Are Mood Disorders? Who Develops Mood Disorders?
        • Depressive Disorders
        • Bipolar Disorders
      • What Are Some of the Factors Implicated in the Development and Course of Mood Disorders?
        • Depressive Disorders
        • Bipolar Disorders
      • What Are Some of the Well-Supported Treatments for Mood Disorders?
        • Depressive Disorders
        • Bipolar Disorders
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 27. Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • The phenomenology of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders
      • The Cognitive Neuroscience of Schizophrenia
      • Risk Factors for Developing Schizophrenia
      • Treatment of Schizophrenia
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 28. Personality Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • DSM-5 Personality Disorders
      • Description
      • Validity
      • Treatment
      • Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Therapies
    • 29. Therapeutic Orientations
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapy
        • History of Psychoanalytic Therapy
        • Techniques in Psychoanalysis
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Psychoanalytic Therapy
      • Humanistic and Person-Centered Therapy
        • History of Person-Centered Therapy
        • Techniques in Person-Centered Therapy
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Person-Centered Therapy
      • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
        • History of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
        • Techniques in CBT
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of CBT
      • Acceptance and Mindfulness-Based Approaches
        • Techniques in Mindfulness-Based Therapy
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Mindfulness-Based Therapy
      • Emerging Treatment Strategies
      • Pharmacological Treatments
      • Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 30. Psychopharmacology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Pharmacokinetics: What Is It – Why Is It Important?
        • Drug Administration
        • Drug Metabolism
      • Recent Issues Related to Psychotropic Drugs and Metabolism
        • Grapefruit Juice and Metabolism
        • Individualized Therapy, Metabolic Differences, and Potential Prescribing Approaches for the Future
      • Other Controversial Issues
        • Juveniles and Psychopharmacology
        • The Elderly and Psychopharmacology
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Social Psychology
    • 31. Social Cognition and Attitudes
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Simplifying Our Social World
      • Making Predictions About the Social World
      • Hot Cognition: The Influence of Motivations, Mood, and Desires on Social Judgment
      • Automaticity
      • Attitudes and Attitude Measurement
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 32. Conformity and Obedience
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Conformity
      • Obedience
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 33. Persuasion: So Easily Fooled
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Two Paths to Persuasion
      • Triggers and Fixed Action Patterns
      • The Source of Persuasion: The Triad of Trustworthiness
        • Authority
        • Honesty
        • Likability
      • Manipulating the Perception of Trustworthiness
        • Testimonials and Endorsement
        • Presenting the Message as Education
        • Word of Mouth
        • The Maven
      • Other Tricks of Persuasion
        • Reciprocity
        • Social Proof
        • Commitment and Consistency
        • A Door in the Face
        • And That’s Not All!
        • The Sunk Cost Trap
        • Scarcity and Psychological Reactance
      • Defending Against Unwelcome Persuasion
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 34. Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotyping
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Old-fashioned Biases: Almost Gone
        • Social Dominance Orientation
        • Right-wing Authoritarianism
      • 20th Century Biases: Subtle but Significant
        • Automatic Biases
        • Ambiguous Biases
        • Bias Can Be Complicated - Ambivalent Biases
      • Conclusion: 21st Century Prejudices
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Psychological Health
    • 35. Happiness: The Science of Subjective Well-Being
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Types of Happiness
      • Causes of Subjective Well-Being
      • Societal Influences on Happiness
        • Money and Happiness
      • Adaptation to Circumstances
      • Outcomes of High Subjective Well-Being
      • Measuring Happiness
      • Some Ways to Be Happier
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 36. The Healthy Life
      • Contents
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Is Health Psychology?
      • Stress And Health
      • Protecting Our Health
        • Coping Strategies
        • Control and Self-Efficacy
        • Social Relationships
        • Dispositions and Emotions: What’s Risky and What’s Protective?
        • Stress Management
      • The Importance Of Good Health Practices
      • Psychology And Medicine
      • Being A Health Psychologist
      • The Future Of Health Psychology
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Index
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