General Psychology: An Introduction
Free

General Psychology: An Introduction

By Unknown
Free
Book Description
Table of Contents
  • GALILEO, University System of Georgia
  • GALILEO Open Learning Materials
    • Spring 2015
  • General Psychology: An Introduction
    • Tori Kearns
    • Deborah Lee
      • Recommended Citation
  • Cover
  • Copyright
  • About Noba
    • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 1: The Origins of Psychology
    • 1. History of Psychology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • A Prehistory of Psychology
      • Physiology and Psychophysics
      • Scientific Psychology Comes to the United States
      • Toward a Functional Psychology
      • The Growth of Psychology
      • Applied Psychology in America
      • Psychology as a Profession
      • Psychology and Society
      • Conclusion
      • Timeline
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 2: The Methods of Psychology
    • 2. Research Designs
      • Learning Objectives
      • Research Designs
      • Experimental Research
        • Other considerations
      • Correlational Designs
        • More details about the correlation
        • Problems with the correlation
      • Qualitative Designs
      • Quasi-Experimental Designs
      • Longitudinal Studies
      • Surveys
      • Tradeoffs in Research
      • Research Methods: Why You Need Them
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 3: Biological Psychology
    • 3. The Brain and Nervous System
      • Learning Objectives
      •  Nervous System development across the human lifespan
      •  The Central Nervous System (CNS): The Neurons inside the Brain
      •  The Central Nervous System: Looking at the Brain as a Whole
      • The Peripheral Nervous System
      • How we study the brain
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
    • 4. Hormones & Behavior
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Sex Differences
      • Aggressive Behaviors
      • Parental Behaviors
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 4: Sensation & Perception
    • 5. Sensation and Perception
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Vision
        • How vision works
        • Dark and light adaptation
        • Color vision
      • Hearing (Audition)
        • Balance and the vestibular system
      • Touch
        • Tactile sensation
        • Pain
        • Phantom limbs
      • Smell and Taste: The Chemical Senses
        • Olfaction (smell)
        • Gustation (taste)
      • Putting it all Together: Multimodal Perception
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 5: Learning & Behavior
    • 6. Conditioning and Learning
      • Learning Objectives
      • Two Types of Conditioning
      • Useful Things to Know about Classical Conditioning
        • Classical Conditioning Has Many Effects on Behavior
        • The Learning Process
        • Erasing Classical Learning
      • Useful Things to Know about Instrumental Conditioning
        • Instrumental Responses Come Under Stimulus Control
        • Operant Conditioning Involves Choice
        • Cognition in Instrumental Learning
      • Putting Classical and Instrumental Conditioning Together
      • Observational Learning
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 6: States of Consciousness
    • 7. States of Consciousness
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Levels of Awareness
        • Low Awareness
        • High Awareness
      • Other States of Consciousness
        • Hypnosis
        • Sleep
        • Psychoactive Drugs
        • Hallucinogens
        • Depressants
        • Stimulants
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 7: Memory
    • 8. Memory (Encoding, Storage, Retrieval)
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Varieties of Memory
      • Three Stages of the Learning/Memory Process
      • Encoding
      • Storage
      • Retrieval
      • Putting It All Together: Improving Your Memory
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 9. Eyewitness Testimony and Memory Biases
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Is Eyewitness Testimony?
      • Why Is Eyewitness Testimony an Important Area of Psychological Research?
      • Misinformation
      • Identifying Perpetrators
      • Kinds of Memory Biases
      • False Memory
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 10. Failures of Awareness: The Case of Inattentional Blindness
      • Learning Objectives
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 8: Motivation
    • 11. Functions of Emotions
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Intrapersonal Functions of Emotion
        • Emotions Help us Act Quickly with Minimal Conscious Awareness
        • Emotions Prepare the Body for Immediate Action
        • Emotions Influence Thoughts
        • Emotions Motivate Future Behaviors
      • Interpersonal Functions of Emotion
        • Emotional Expressions Facilitate Specific Behaviors in Perceivers
        • Emotional Expressions Signal the Nature of Interpersonal Relationships
        • Emotional Expressions Provide Incentives for Desired Social Behavior
      • Social and Cultural Functions of Emotion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 12. Motives and Goals
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • The Origins and Manifestation of Goals
        • Goal Adoption
        • Goal Priming
        • Consequences of Goal Activation
      • Self-Regulation in Goal Pursuit
        • From Deliberation to Implementation
        • Regulation of Ought- and Ideals-Goals
        • A Cybernetic Process of Self-Regulation
        • Highlighting One Goal or Balancing Between Goals
      • Conflicting Goals and Self-Control
        • Self-Control as an Innate Ability
        • Self-Control as a Limited Resource
        • A Prerequisite to Self-Control: Identification
        • Self-Control Processes: Counteracting Temptation
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 9: Stress & Health
    • 13. The Healthy Life
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Is Health Psychology?
      • Stress And Health
      • Protecting Our Health
        • Coping Strategies
        • Control and Self-Efficacy
        • Social Relationships
        • Dispositions and Emotions: What’s Risky and What’s Protective?
        • Stress Management
      • The Importance Of Good Health Practices
      • Psychology And Medicine
      • Being A Health Psychologist
      • The Future Of Health Psychology
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 10: Cognition: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
    • 14. Intelligence
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Defining and Measuring Intelligence
      • Types of Intelligence
      • Correlates of Intelligence
      • Conclusion
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 15. Judgment and Decision Making
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • What Would a Rational Decision Look Like?
      • Biases in Our Decision Process
        • Problem 1 (adapted from Alpert & Raiffa, 1969):
        • Problem 2 (adapted from Joyce & Biddle, 1981):
        • Problem 3 (adapted from Tversky & Kahneman, 1981):
        • Overconfidence
        • Anchoring
        • Framing
      • Contemporary Developments
      • Fixing Our Decisions
      • Concluding Thoughts
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 16. Language and Language Use
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • How Do We Use Language?
      • What Do We Talk About?
      • Psychological Consequences of Language Use
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 11: Human Development
    • 17. Attachment Through the Life Course
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Attachment Theory: A Brief History and Core Concepts
      • Individual Differences in Infant Attachment
      • Antecedents of Attachment Patterns
      • Attachment Patterns and Child Outcomes
      • Attachment in Adulthood
        • Research on Attachment in Adulthood
        • Who Ends Up with Whom?
        • Relationship Functioning
        • Do Early Experiences Shape Adult Attachment?
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 18. Cognitive Development in Childhood
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Nature and Nurture
      • Does Cognitive Development Progress Through Distinct Stages?
      • Applications to Education
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 19. Adolescent Development
      • Learning Objectives
      • Adolescence Defined
        • Physical Changes
        • Cognitive Changes
        • Social Changes
        • Parents
        • Peers
        • Romantic relationships
      • Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment
        • Identity formation
        • Aggression and antisocial behavior
        • Anxiety and depression
        • Academic achievement
        • Diversity
      • Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 12: Personality
    • 20. Personality Traits
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
        • The Five-Factor Model of Personality
      • Facets of Traits (Subtraits)
      • Other Traits Beyond the Five-Factor Model
      • The Person-Situation Debate and Alternatives to the Trait Perspective
      • Appendix
        • The Mini-IPIP Scale
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 21. The Psychodynamic Perspective
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Core Assumptions of the Psychodynamic Perspective
        • Assumption 1:Primacy of the Unconscious
        • Assumption 2: Critical Importance of Early Experiences
        • Assumption 3: Psychic Causality
      • The Evolution of Psychodynamic Theory
        • The Topographic Model
        • The Psychosexual Stage Model
        • The Structural Model
        • The Ego and Its Defenses
      • Psychodynamic Theories: Where Are We Now?
        • Object Relations Theory and the Growth of the Psychodynamic Perspective
        • Empirical Research on Psychodynamic Theories
        • Psychoanalysis and Culture
        • The Opportunities and Challenges of Neuroscience
      • Looking Ahead: Psychodynamic Theory in the 21st Century (and Beyond)
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders
    • 22. Anxiety and Related Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
      • Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
      • Specific Phobia
      • Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)
      • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
      • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
      • Treatments for Anxiety and Related Disorders
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 23. Mood Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • What Are Mood Disorders?
        • Mood Episodes
        • Mood Disorders
      • How Common Are Mood Disorders? Who Develops Mood Disorders?
        • Depressive Disorders
        • Bipolar Disorders
      • What Are Some of the Factors Implicated in the Development and Course of Mood Disorders?
        • Depressive Disorders
        • Bipolar Disorders
      • What Are Some of the Well-Supported Treatments for Mood Disorders?
        • Depressive Disorders
        • Bipolar Disorders
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 24. Dissociative Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
        • Is it real?
        • Defining dissociation
        • Measuring dissociation
      • Dissociation and Trauma
        • Causality and evidence
      • Dissociation and Sleep
        • A little history
        • Sleep problems in patients with dissociative disorders
        • Studying the relationship between dissociation and sleep
        • Inducing and reducing sleep problems
      • Implications and Conclusions
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 25. Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
      • Learning Objectives
      • The phenomenology of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders
      • The Cognitive Neuroscience of Schizophrenia
      • Risk Factors for Developing Schizophrenia
      • Treatment of Schizophrenia
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 14: Therapy
    • 26. Therapeutic Orientations
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapy
        • History of Psychoanalytic Therapy
        • Techniques in Psychoanalysis
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Psychoanalytic Therapy
      • Humanistic and Person-Centered Therapy
        • History of Person-Centered Therapy
        • Techniques in Person-Centered Therapy
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Person-Centered Therapy
      • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
        • History of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
        • Techniques in CBT
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of CBT
      • Acceptance and Mindfulness-Based Approaches
        • Techniques in Mindfulness-Based Therapy
        • Advantages and Disadvantages of Mindfulness-Based Therapy
      • Emerging Treatment Strategies
      • Pharmacological Treatments
      • Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy
      • Conclusion
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 27. Psychopharmacology
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Pharmacokinetics: What Is It – Why Is It Important?
        • Drug Administration
        • Drug Metabolism
      • Recent Issues Related to Psychotropic Drugs and Metabolism
        • Grapefruit Juice and Metabolism
        • Individualized Therapy, Metabolic Differences, and Potential Prescribing Approaches for the Future
      • Other Controversial Issues
        • Juveniles and Psychopharmacology
        • The Elderly and Psychopharmacology
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Chapter 15: Social Psychology
    • 28. Prejudice, Discrimination, and Stereotyping
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Old-fashioned Biases: Almost Gone
        • Social Dominance Orientation
        • Right-wing Authoritarianism
      • 20th Century Biases: Subtle but Significant
        • Automatic Biases
        • Ambiguous Biases
        • Bias Can Be Complicated - Ambivalent Biases
      • Conclusion: 21st Century Prejudices
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 29. Persuasion: So Easily Fooled
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Two Paths to Persuasion
      • Triggers and Fixed Action Patterns
      • The Source of Persuasion: The Triad of Trustworthiness
        • Authority
        • Honesty
        • Likability
      • Manipulating the Perception of Trustworthiness
        • Testimonials and Endorsement
        • Presenting the Message as Education
        • Word of Mouth
        • The Maven
      • Other Tricks of Persuasion
        • Reciprocity
        • Social Proof
        • Commitment and Consistency
        • A Door in the Face
        • And That’s Not All!
        • The Sunk Cost Trap
        • Scarcity and Psychological Reactance
      • Defending Against Unwelcome Persuasion
      • Conclusion
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
    • 30. Conformity and Obedience
      • Contents
      • Learning Objectives
      • Introduction
      • Conformity
      • Obedience
      • Outside Resources
      • Discussion Questions
      • Vocabulary
      • References
  • Index
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