A grammar of Papuan Malay
Angela Kluge
Politics & Social Sciences
A grammar of Papuan Malay
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This book presents an in-depth linguistic description of one Papuan Malay variety, based on sixteen hours of recordings of spontaneous narratives and conversations between Papuan Malay speakers. ‘Papuan Malay’ refers to the easternmost varieties of Malay (Austronesian). They are spoken in the coastal areas of West Papua, the western part of the island of New Guinea. The variety described here is spoken along West Papua’s northeast coast. Papuan Malay is the language of wider communication and the first or second language for an ever-increasing number of people of the area. While Papuan Malay is not officially recognized and therefore not used in formal government or educational settings or for religious preaching, it is used in all other domains, including unofficial use in formal settings, and, to some extent, in the public media. After a general introduction to the language, its setting, and history, this grammar discusses the following topics, building up from smaller grammatical constituents to larger ones: phonology, word formation, noun and prepositional phrases, verbal and nonverbal clauses, non-declarative clauses, and conjunctions and constituent combining. Of special interest to linguists, typologists, and Malay specialists are the following in-depth analyses and descriptions: affixation and its productivity across domains of language choice, reduplication and its gesamtbedeutung, personal pronouns and their adnominal uses, demonstratives and locatives and their extended uses, and adnominal possessive relations and their non- canonical uses. This study provides a point of comparison for further studies in other (Papuan) Malay varieties and a starting point for Papuan Malay language development efforts.

Conventions for examples
1 Introduction
1.1 Geographical setting
1.2 Genetic affiliations
1.2.1 Papuan Malay, a Malayic language
1.2.2 Papuan Malay, a non-creole descendant of low Malay
1.2.3 Papuan Malay, a distinct language within the Malay continuum
1.3 Dialect situation
1.4 Linguistic setting
1.5 Sociolinguistic profile
1.5.1 Language use
1.5.2 Language attitudes
1.6 Typological profile of Papuan Malay
1.6.1 General typological profile Phonology Morphology Word classes Basic word order
1.6.2 Papuan Malay as a language of the Papuan contact zone
1.6.3 Papuan Malay as an eastern Malay variety
1.7 Demographic information
1.7.1 Speaker numbers
1.7.2 Occupation details
1.7.3 Education and literacy rates
1.7.4 Religious affiliations
1.8 History of Papuan Malay
1.9 Previous research on Papuan Malay
1.9.1 Early linguistic studies on the Malay varieties of West Papua
1.9.2 Recent linguistic descriptions of Papuan Malay
1.9.3 Sociolinguistic and sociohistorical studies
1.10 Available materials in Papuan Malay
1.11 Present study
1.11.1 Theoretical considerations
1.11.2 Setting of the research location
1.11.3 Methodological approach and fieldwork
1.11.4 Papuan Malay corpus and speaker sample Recorded texts Sample of recorded Papuan Malay speakers
1.11.5 Data transcription, analysis, and examples Data transcription and translation into English Data analysis, grammaticality judgments, and focused elicitation
1.11.6 Word list
2 Phonology
2.1 Segment inventory
2.1.1 Consonant system Consonant inventory Contrast between similar consonants
2.1.2 Vowel system Vowel inventory Contrast between the vowel segments
2.2 Phonological processes
2.2.1 Nasal place assimilation
2.2.2 Tap/trill alternation of the alveolar rhotic
2.2.3 Centralization of vowels
2.3 Phonetic processes
2.3.1 Phonetic processes for consonants Lenition and fortition Elision Devoicing Palatalization
2.3.2 Phonetic processes for vowels Centralization and lowering Nasalization Lengthening
2.3.3 Alternative realizations of the VC sequences /aj/ and /aw/
2.4 Phonotactics
2.4.1 Consonant phoneme distribution and sequences
2.4.2 Vowel phoneme distribution and sequences
2.4.3 Syllable structures
2.4.4 Stress patterns Stress patterns for lexical roots Stress patterns for historically derived lexical items
2.5 Non-native segments and loanwords
2.5.1 Non-native segments
2.5.2 Phonological and phonetic processes in loanwords Lack of nasal place assimilation Lenition Palatalization of the alveolar fricative
2.5.3 Phonotactics in loanwords Consonant distribution and sequences Vowel distribution and sequences Syllable structure and stress patterns
2.6 Orthographic conventions
2.7 Summary
3 Word-formation
3.1 Affixation
3.1.1 Introduction
3.1.2 Prefix TER- ‘acl’ Allomorphy of ter- Prefixed items derived from bivalent verbal bases Prefixed items derived from monovalent verbal bases Variables of the communicative event Summary and conclusions
3.1.3 Suffix -ang ‘pat’ Suffixed items derived from verbal bases Suffixed items derived from nominal or numeral bases Variables of the communicative event Summary and conclusions
3.1.4 Prefix PE(N)- ‘ag’ Allomorphy of pe(n)- Prefixed items derived from verbal bases Prefixed items derived from nominal bases Variables of the communicative event Summary and conclusions
3.1.5 Prefix BER- ‘vblz’ Allomorphy of ber- Prefixed items derived from verbal bases Prefixed items derived from nominal, numeral, or quantifier bases Summary and conclusions
3.1.6 Suffix -nya ‘3possr’ Suffixed items derived from nominal bases Suffixed items derived from verbal bases Suffixed items derived from other bases Summary and conclusions
3.1.7 Circumfix ke-/-ang ‘nmlz’ Circumfixed items derived from verbal bases Circumfixed items derived from nominal, numeral, or quantifier bases Summary and conclusions
3.1.8 Variables of the communicative event
3.2 Compounding
3.2.1 Demarcation of compounds from phrasal expressions
3.2.2 Types of collocations
3.3 Summary
4 Reduplication
4.1 Lexeme formation
4.1.1 Full reduplication Reduplication of content words Reduplication of function words Reduplication without corresponding single base
4.1.2 Partial reduplication
4.1.3 Imitative reduplication
4.2 Lexeme interpretation
4.2.1 Reduplication of nouns Collectivity and diversity Repetition Indefiniteness Interpretational shift
4.2.2 Reduplication of verbs Continuation, repetition, and habit Collectivity and diversity Intensity Immediacy Aimlessness Attenuation Imitation Interpretational shift
4.2.3 Reduplication of adverbs
4.2.4 Reduplication of numerals and quantifiers
4.2.5 Reduplication of function words Personal pronouns Demonstratives and locatives Interrogatives Causative sbj]verbverb kasi ‘give’ and reciprocity marker baku ‘recp’
4.2.6 Gesamtbedeutung of reduplication
4.3 Reduplication across eastern Malay varieties
4.3.1 Lexeme formation
4.3.2 Lexeme interpretation
4.3.3 Interpretational shift
4.4 Summary
5 Word classes
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Nouns
5.2.1 Common nouns
5.2.2 Proper nouns
5.2.3 Location nouns Nominal uses Adnominal uses
5.2.4 Direction nouns
5.2.5 Time-denoting nouns Time units Periods of the day Days of the week and months of the year Relative time
5.2.6 Classifying nouns
5.2.7 Kinship terms Consanguineal kin Affinal kin
5.3 Verbs
5.3.1 Valency
5.3.2 Predicative and attributive functions
5.3.3 Adverbial modification
5.3.4 Intensification
5.3.5 Grading
5.3.6 Negation
5.3.7 Causative constructions
5.3.8 Reciprocal constructions
5.3.9 Morphological properties
5.3.10 Summary
5.4 Adverbs
5.4.1 Aspectual adverbs
5.4.2 Frequency adverbs
5.4.3 Affirmation and negation adverbs
5.4.4 Modal adverbs
5.4.5 Temporal adverbs
5.4.6 Focus adverbs
5.4.7 Degree adverbs
5.4.8 Expressing manner
5.4.9 Summary
5.5 Personal pronouns
5.6 Demonstratives
5.6.1 Adnominal uses
5.6.2 Pronominal uses
5.6.3 Adverbial uses
5.6.4 Stacking of demonstratives
5.7 Locatives
5.7.1 Pronominal uses
5.7.2 Adnominal uses
5.8 Interrogatives
5.8.1 siapa ‘who’
5.8.2 apa ‘what’
5.8.3 mana ‘where, which’
5.8.4 bagemana ‘how’
5.8.5 kapang ‘when’
5.8.6 knapa ‘why’
5.8.7 Interrogative uses of mid-range quantifier brapa ‘several’
5.8.8 Interrogatives denoting indefinite referents
5.8.9 Summary
5.9 Numerals
5.9.1 Cardinal numerals
5.9.2 Ordinal numerals
5.9.3 Distributive numerals
5.9.4 Additional function of satu ‘one’
5.10 Quantifiers
5.10.1 Universal and mid-range quantifiers
5.10.2 Distributive quantifiers
5.11 Prepositions
5.12 Conjunctions
5.13 Tags, placeholders etc.
5.13.1 Tags
5.13.2 Placeholders and hesitation markers
5.13.3 Interjections
5.13.4 Onomatopoeia
5.14 Variation in word class membership
5.15 Summary
6 Personal pronouns
6.1 Pronominal uses
6.1.1 Distribution of personal pronouns within the clause Personal pronouns in different syntactic slots Personal pronouns within the clause
6.1.2 Modification of personal pronouns
6.1.3 Personal pronouns in adnominal possessive constructions
6.1.4 Personal pronouns in inclusory conjunction constructions
6.1.5 Personal pronouns in summary conjunctions
6.1.6 Personal pronouns in appositional constructions
6.2 Adnominal uses
6.2.1 Adnominal singular personal pronouns np 2sg noun phrases ``np 2sg'' noun phrases in direct speech ``np 2sg'' noun phrases in reported speech ``np 2sg'' noun phrases as rhetorical figures of speech (“apostrophes”) ``np 2sg'' noun phrases and their head nominals np 3sg noun phrases Situational uses of dia/de ‘3sg’ in ``np 3sg'' noun phrases Anaphoric uses of dia/de ‘3sg’ in ``np 3sg'' noun phrases ``np 3sg'' noun phrases and their head nominals np pro-sg expressions with comma intonation Analysis of np pro-sg expressions as noun phrases and not as topic-comment constructions
6.2.2 Adnominal plural personal pronouns Additive plural interpretation Associative inclusory plural interpretation Associative plural in other regional Malay varieties
6.3 Summary
7 Demonstratives and locatives
7.1 Demonstratives
7.1.1 Syntax and forms of demonstratives Distributional properties of demonstratives Distribution of the long versus short demonstrative forms
7.1.2 Functions of demonstratives Spatial uses of demonstratives Temporal uses of demonstratives Psychological uses of demonstratives Demonstratives signaling emotional involvement Demonstratives signaling vividness Demonstratives signaling contrast between two entities Identificational uses of demonstratives Textual uses of demonstratives Anaphoric uses Discourse deictic uses Placeholder uses of demonstratives
7.2 Locatives
7.2.1 Syntax and forms of locatives Distributional properties of locatives Distribution of the pronominally versus the adnominally used locatives
7.2.2 Functions of locatives Spatial uses of locatives Semantic distinctions between the three locatives Semantic distinctions between the pronominally and adnominally used locatives Figurative locational uses of locatives Temporal uses of locatives Psychological uses of locatives Textual anaphoric uses of locatives
7.3 Combining demonstratives and locatives
7.4 Summary
8 Noun phrases
8.1 Introduction
8.2 N-MOD structure
8.2.1 Verbs [n v]
8.2.2 Nouns [n n]
8.2.3 Personal pronouns [n pro]
8.2.4 Demonstratives [n dem]
8.2.5 Locatives [n loc]
8.2.6 Interrogatives [n int]
8.2.7 Prepositional phrases [n pp]
8.2.8 Relative clauses [n rc]
8.3 N-MOD/MOD-N structure
8.3.1 Numerals [n num / num n]
8.3.2 Quantifiers [n qt / qt n]
8.4 MOD-N structure: Adnominal possession
8.5 Apposition
8.6 Summary
9 Adnominal possessive relations
9.1 Possessive marker punya ‘poss’
9.1.1 possr-np punya/pu possm-np
9.1.2 possr-np =p possm-np
9.1.3 possr-np Ø possm-np
9.1.4 Grammaticalization of punya ‘poss’
9.2 Realizations of possr-np and possm-np
9.2.1 Syntactic and semantic properties
9.2.2 Elision of the possessum noun phrase
9.2.3 Recursive adnominal possessive constructions
9.3 Noncanonical adnominal possessive constructions
9.3.1 Locational relations and association
9.3.2 Beneficiary relations
9.3.3 Intensifying function of punya ‘poss’ n-possr – punya – qt-possm constructions n-possr – punya – v-possm constructions v-possr – punya – v-possm constructions
9.3.4 punya ‘poss’ in reflexive expressions
9.4 Summary and discussion
10 Prepositions and the prepositional phrase
10.1 Prepositions encoding location in space and time
10.1.1 di ‘at, in’
10.1.2 ke ‘to’
10.1.3 dari ‘from’
10.1.4 sampe ‘until’
10.1.5 Elision of prepositions encoding location
10.2 Prepositions encoding accompaniment/instruments, goals, and benefaction
10.2.1 dengang ‘with’
10.2.2 sama ‘to’
10.2.3 untuk ‘for’
10.2.4 buat ‘for’
10.3 Prepositions encoding comparisons
10.3.1 sperti ‘similar to’
10.3.2 kaya ‘like’
10.3.3 sebagey ‘as’
10.4 Summary
11 Verbal clauses
11.1 Intransitive and transitive clauses
11.1.1 Verbal clauses with monovalent verbs
11.1.2 Verbal clauses with bivalent verbs
11.1.3 Verbal clauses with trivalent verbs Double-object constructions R-type oblique constructions Adnominal possessive constructions Elision Distributional frequencies
11.2 Causative clauses
11.2.1 Syntactic causatives Causative verbs Syntactic causatives with kasi ‘give’ Monovalent bases Bivalent bases Syntactic causatives with biking ‘make’
11.2.2 Lexical causatives
11.2.3 Periphrastic causative constructions
11.2.4 Summary
11.3 Reciprocal clauses
11.3.1 Syntactic reciprocals Simple reciprocal constructions Discontinuous reciprocal constructions
11.3.2 Lexical reciprocals
11.3.3 Summary
11.4 Existential clauses
11.4.1 One-argument existential clauses
11.4.2 Two-argument existential clauses
11.4.3 Summary
11.5 Comparative clauses
11.5.1 Degree-marking comparative clauses
11.5.2 Identity-marking comparative clauses
11.5.3 Summary
11.6 Summary
12 Nonverbal clauses
12.1 Nonverbal clause subjects
12.2 Nominal predicate clauses
12.3 Numeral and quantifier predicate clauses
12.4 Prepositional predicate clauses
12.4.1 Locational prepositional clauses
12.4.2 Nonlocational prepositional clauses
12.5 Summary
13 Negative, interrogative, and directive clauses
13.1 Negative clauses
13.1.1 Negation with tida/tra ‘neg’ Negation of verbal clauses Negation of existential clauses Negation of prepositional predicate clauses Negation of polar questions
13.1.2 Negation with bukang ‘neg’
13.2 Interrogative clauses
13.2.1 Content questions
13.2.2 Polar questions Unmarked neutral polar questions Marked biased polar questions
13.2.3 Alternative questions
13.3 Directive clauses
13.3.1 Imperatives and hortatives
13.3.2 Permissions and obligations
13.3.3 Prohibitives
14 Conjunctions and constituent combining
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Conjunctions combining same-type constituents
14.2.1 Addition Comitative dengang ‘with’ Conjunctive dang ‘and’ Goal-oriented sama ‘to’
14.2.2 Alternative Disjunctive ato ‘or’ Disjunctive ka ‘or’
14.2.3 Time and/or condition Sequential trus ‘next’ Sequential baru ‘and then’ Anteriority-marking sampe ‘until’ Anteriority-marking seblum ‘before’ Posteriority-marking/conditional kalo ‘when, if’
14.2.4 Consequence Resultative/causal jadi ‘so, since’ Purposive supaya ‘so that’ Purposive untuk ‘for’ Causal karna ‘because’ Causal gara-gara ‘because’
14.2.5 Contrast Adversative tapi ‘but’ Adversative habis ‘after all’ Oppositive padahal ‘but actually’ Concessive biar ‘although’
14.2.6 Similarity
14.3 Conjunctions combining different-type constituents
14.3.1 Complementizer bahwa ‘that’
14.3.2 Relativizer yang ‘rel’
14.4 Juxtaposition
14.5 Summary
Appendix A: Word lists
A.1 Papuan Malay roots
A.2 Loanwords
A.3 Lexical items historically derived by (unproductive) affixation of Malay roots
Appendix B: Texts
B.1 Conversation: Playing volleyball; morning chores
B.2 Conversation: Buying soap; bringing gasoline to Webro
B.3 Conversation: Wanting bananas
B.4 Narrative: A drunkard in the hospital at night
B.5 Narrative: A motorbike accident
B.6 Narrative: Pig hunting with dogs
B.7 Expository: Directions to a certain statue and tree
B.8 Expository: Sterility
B.9 Hortatory: Don’t get dirty!
B.10 Hortatory: Bathe in the ocean!
B.11 Joke: Drawing a monkey
B.12 Joke: Dividing three fish
Appendix C: Overview of recorded corpus
Appendix D: OLAC resources for the languages of the Sarmi regency
Appendix E: Population totals for West Papua
Appendix F: Affixation
F.1 Prefix TER-
F.2 Suffix -ang
F.3 Prefix PE(N)-
F.4 Prefix BER-
F.5 Suffix -nya
F.6 Circumfix ke-/-ang
Name index
Language index
Subject index
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