Oxford University Press
Exam Success in 20th Century History for Cambridge IGCSE & O Level
Peter Smith, Neil Smith, Ray Ennion
Exam Success in 20th Century History for Cambridge IGCSE & O Level
US$ 20.99
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Focused on grade improvement, this Exam Success Guide brings much-needed clarity to exam preparation, equipping students to achieve their best in the IGCSE & O Level exams (0470/0977/2134), and beyond. This guide enables students to recap and review key course content, apply their knowledge, and hone exam techniques. It also includes examiner tips, 'Raise your grade' advice and exam-style practice to ensure your students are exam-ready. Perfect for use alongside Complete 20th Century History for Cambridge IGCSE & O Level or as a standalone resource for independent revision.

1 Were the peace treaties of 1919–23 fair?
Background: the peace treaties of 1919–23
What were the motives and aims of the “Big Three” at Versailles?
What were the main terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted?
What was the impact of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany up to 1923?
How were Germany’s allies affected by the other peace treaties?
Could the treaties be justified at the time?
Raise your grade
2 To what extent was the League of Nations a success?
Background: the League of Nations’ aims, organisation, and power
How successful was the League in the 1920s?
What were League’s failures in the 1920s?
How far did weaknesses in the League’s organisation make failure inevitable?
The impact of the Great Depression on the League
How successful was the League in the 1930s?
Raise your grade
3 Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?
Background: international peace in the 1920s and 1930s
What were the long-term consequences of the peace treaties of 1919–23?
What were the consequences of the failure of the League of Nations in the 1930s?
How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939?
What foreign policy actions were taken by Hitler from 1933–6?
What happened from 1936–9?
Was the policy of appeasement justified?
Raise your grade
4 Who was to blame for the Cold War?
Background: tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1945
Why did the United States–Soviet Union alliance begin to break down in 1945?
How did the United States react to Soviet expansion?
What was the Berlin Blockade?
The consequences of the blockade
Who was the most to blame for starting the Cold War: the United States or the Soviet Union?
Raise your grade
5 How effectively did the United States contain the spread of communism?
Background: American concerns about communism
The United States and events in Cuba, 1959–62
American involvement in Vietnam
Why did the United States become involved in Vietnam?
Raise your grade
6 How secure was the Soviet Union’s control over Eastern Europe?
Background: Soviet control over Eastern Europe, 1945–53
Why was there opposition to Soviet control in Hungary in 1956?
How did the Soviet Union react to this opposition?
Why was there opposition to Soviet control in Czechoslovakia in 1968?
How did the Soviet Union react to this opposition?
Events in Hungary in 1956 and in Czechoslovakia in 1968—similarities and differences
Why was the Berlin Wall built in 1961?
What was the significance of “Solidarity” in Poland for the decline of Soviet influence in Eastern Europe?
How far was Gorbachev personally responsible for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe?
Raise your grade
7 Why did events in the Gulf matter, c.1970–2000?
Background: the importance of events in the Gulf
Why was Saddam Hussein able to come to power in Iraq?
What was the nature of Saddam Hussein’s rule in Iraq?
Why was there a revolution in Iran in 1979?
What were the causes and consequences of the Iran–Iraq War, 1980–8?
Why did the First Gulf War take place?
Raise your grade
8 The First World War 1914–18
Background: events immediately before the First World War
Why was the war not over by December 1914?
How successful was the British Expeditionary Force (BEF)?
Why was there stalemate on the Western Front?
How important were new developments such as tanks, machine guns, aircraft, and gas?
What was the significance of the Battles of Verdun and the Somme?
How important were other fronts?
Why did the Gallipoli campaign of 1915 fail?
Why did Russia leave the war in 1918?
What was the impact of war on civilian populations?
Why did Germany ask for an armistice in 1918?
Why was the German offensive of 1918 unsuccessful?
Why did revolution break out in Germany in October 1918?
Why was the armistice signed?
Raise your grade
9 Germany, 1918–45
Background: the formation of the Weimar Republic
Was the Weimar Republic doomed from the start?
What was the impact of the Treaty of Versailles on the Weimar Republic?
To what extent did the Republic recover after 1923 under Stresemann?
Why was Hitler able to dominate Germany by 1934?
Why was Hitler able to become Chancellor by 1933?
How did Hitler consolidate his power in 1933–4?
How effectively did the Nazis control Germany, 1933–45?
What was it like to live in Nazi Germany?
Raise your grade
10 The United States, 1919–41
Background: the build-up to the 1920s boom
How far did the American economy boom in the 1920s?
How far did American society change in the 1920s?
How widespread was intolerance in American society?
Why was Prohibition introduced and later repealed?
How far did the roles of women change during the 1920s?
What were the causes and consequences of the Wall Street Crash?
What did Hoover do to try to combat the Great Depression?
Why did Roosevelt win the election of 1932?
How successful was the New Deal?
How far did the character of the New Deal change after 1933?
Why did the New Deal encounter opposition?
Why did unemployment persist despite the New Deal?
Raise your grade
11 Israelis and Palestinians since 1945
Background: history of the conflict between the Israelis and Palestinians
How was the Jewish state of Israel established?
How was Israel able to survive despite the hostility of its Arab neighbours?
What was the impact of the Palestinian refugee issue?
Why has it proved impossible to resolve the Arab–Israeli issue?
Raise your grade
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