The University of the West Indies Press
How Britain Underdeveloped the Caribbean
Hilary McD. Beckles
How Britain Underdeveloped the Caribbean
US$ 9.99
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“The modern Caribbean economy was invented, structured and managed by European states for one purpose: to achieve maximum wealth extraction to fuel and sustain their national financial, commercial and industrial transformation.” So begins How Britain Underdeveloped the Caribbean: A Reparation Response to Europe’s Legacy of Plunder and Povertyas Hilary McD. Beckles continuesthegroundbreaking work he began in Britain’s Black Debt: Reparations for Caribbean Slavery and Native Genocide. We are now in atime of global reckoning for centuries of crimes against humanity perpetrated by European colonial powersas they built their empires with the wealth extracted from theterritories they occupied and exploited with enslavedand, later, indenturedlabour.The systematic brutalityof the transatlantic trade in enslaved Africans and the plantation economies did not disappear with the abolition of slavery. Rather, the means of exploitation were reconfiguredto ensure that wealth continued to flow to European states.Independence from colonial powers in the twentieth century did not mean real freedom for the Caribbean nations, left as they were without the resources for meaningful development and in a state of persistent poverty. Beckles focuses his attention onthe British Empireand shows how successive governments have systematically suppressed economic development in their former colonies and have refused to accept responsibility for the debt and development support they owe the Caribbean

Origins of Caribbean Underdevelopment
Part 1
British Emancipation as Wealth Extraction
Persistent Poverty: The British Legacy of Plunder
Chapter 1
Roots of Poverty: Emancipation Business Model
Chapter 2
“The Nigger Question”: Racial Terrorism
Chapter 3
Black Bloodbaths: Dying for Democracy
Part 2
British Fascism against Caribbean Freedom
Chapter 4
Freezing Freedom: Blocking Black Progress
Chapter 5
Plantations Are Forever
Chapter 6
Garvey’s Grassroots Guerrillas
Chapter 7
Ending Empire: The 1930s Revolution
Chapter 8
Arthur Lewis: Reparations for Economic Development
Part 3
Crushing Caribbean Aspirations
Chapter 9
Federation without Funding: Empire Strikes Back
Chapter 10
Punish West Indians, Promote East Indians: The Colombo Plan
Chapter 11
Independence: Britain Exits on the Cheap
Chapter 12
West Indian Nation-Building, or Cleaning up the Colonial Mess
Selected Bibliography
Illustration Credits
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