Oxford University Press
Biology in Context for Cambridge International AS & A Level
Glen Toole, Susan Toole
Science & Math
Biology in Context for Cambridge International AS & A Level
US$ 59.99
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This comprehensive resource supports students with its stretching, problem solving approach. It helps foster long-term performance in science, as well as building their confidence for the Cambridge examinations. The practical approach helps to make science meaningful, so it is ideal for students planning to study science at university.

Front Cover
Title Page
1 Cell structure
1.1 The microscope in cell studies
1.2 The light microscope
1.3 The electron microscope
1.4 Microscopic measurements and calculations
1.5 Cell structure
1.6 Nucleus, chloroplast and mitochondria
1.7 Endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes, Golgi body and lysosomes
1.8 Cell surface membrane, cell wall and centrioles
1.9 Prokaryotic cells
1 Examination and Practice Questions
2 Biological molecules
2.1 Introduction to biological molecules
2.2 Carbohydrates – monosaccharides and disaccharides
2.3 Carbohydrates – starch and glycogen
2.4 Carbohydrates – cellulose
2.5 Lipids
2.6 Amino acids and polypeptides
2.7 Protein structure
2.8 Fibrous and globular proteins
2.9 Water and its functions
2 Examination and Practice Questions
3 Enzymes
3.1 Enzyme structure and mode of action
3.2 Effect of temperature and pH onenzyme action
3.3 Effect of enzyme and substrate concentration on enzyme action
3.4 Enzyme inhibition
3 Examination and Practice Questions
4 Cell membranes and transport
4.1 Structure of the cell surface membrane
4.2 Diffusion
4.3 Osmosis
4.4 Osmosis and cells
4.5 Active transport, endocytosis and exocytosis
4 Examination and Practice Questions
5 The mitotic cell cycle
5.1 Chromosomes and the cell cycle
5.2 Chromosome behaviour in mitosis
5.3 The importance of mitosis
5 Examination and Practice Questions
6 Nucleic acids and proteinsynthesis
6.1 Nucleotides and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
6.2 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) structure
6.3 DNA replication
6.4 Evidence for semi-conservative DNA replication
6.5 The genetic code
6.6 Protein synthesis – transcription
6.7 Protein synthesis – translation
6 Examination and Practice Questions
7 Transport in plants
7.1 The need for transport systems in organisms
7.2 Exchanges between organisms and their environment
7.3 Distribution of vascular tissues in dicotyledonous plants
7.4 Structure and function of xylem
7.5 Uptake of water and transport across roots
7.6 Movement of water up the stem and acrossthe leaf
7.7 Transpiration
7.8 Xerophytes
7.9 Structure and function of phloem
7.10 Translocation of organic molecules in plants
7 Examination and Practice Questions
8 Transport in mammals
8.1 Arteries, veins and capillaries
8.2 The structure and functions of blood
8.3 Tissue fluid and lymph
8.4 Transport of oxygen
8.5 Transport of carbon dioxide
8.6 Transport of oxygen at high altitude
8.7 Structure of the heart
8.8 The cardiac cycle
8.9 Control of the cardiac cycle
8.10 Blood pressure and pulse
8 Examination and Practice Questions
9 Gas exchange and smoking
9.1 Human gas exchange system
9.2 Gas exchange in the alveoli
9.3 Tobacco smoke and its effects on gas exchange
9.4 Pulmonary diseases and smoking
9.5 Cardiovascular disease and smoking
9.6 Drug (substance) abuse
9.7 Obesity
9.8 Exercise – its effects and consequences
9 Examination and Practice Questions
10 Infectious disease
10.1 Health and disease
10.2 Types of disease
10.3 Health statistics
10.4 Cholera
10.5 Malaria
10.6 Tuberculosis
10.7 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS)
10.8 Measles, smallpox and dengue fever
10.9 Antibiotics
10 Examination and Practice Questions
11 Immunity
11.1 Defence against disease and phagocytosis
11.2 Principles of immunity – antigens and antibodies
11.3 Monoclonal antibodies
11.4 B lyamdinphg and humoral immunity
11.5 T lymphocytes and cell-mediated immunity
11.6 Types of immunity and vaccination
11.7 Control of disease by vaccination
11 Examination and Practice Questions
12 Energy and respiration
12.1 Energy
12.2 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
12.3 Respiration – glycolysis
12.4 Link reaction and Krebs cycle
12.5 Oxidative phosphorylation
12.6 Anaerobic respiration and energy yields
12.7 Measurement of respiration and respiratory quotients
12 Examination and Practice Questions
13 Photosynthesis
13.1 An overview of photosynthesis
13.2 Adaptations to photosynthesis – leaf and chloroplast structure
13.3 Chloroplast pigments and light harvesting
13.4 Photosynthesis – the light dependent stage
13.5 Photosynthesis – the light independent stage
13.6 Limiting factors affecting photosynthesis
13.7 Adaptations to photosynthesis – C4 plants
13 Examination and Practice Questions
14 Homeostasis
14.1 Homeostasis in mammals
14.2 Excretion and kidney structure
14.3 The structure of the nephron
14.4 Kidney function – ultrafiltration and selective reabsorption
14.5 Kidney function – loop of Henlé and reabsorption of water
14.6 Control of water and solute concentration of the blood
14.7 Hormones and the endocrine glands
14.8 Regulation of blood glucose
14.9 BHieoasdeinnsgo rAs
14.10 Homeostasis in plants
14 Examination and Practice Questions
15 Control and coordination
15.1 Nervous communications and neurones
15.2 Sensory receptors
15.3 The reflex arc
15.4 The nerve impulse
15.5 Transmission of impulses along a neurone
15.6 Speed of nerve impulse transmission
15.7 Structure and function of synapses
15.8 Synaptic transmission
15.9 Striated muscle
15.10 Muscle contraction
15.11 The menstrual cycle
15.12 Contraception and birth control
15.13 Control and coordination in plants
15 Examination and Practice Questions
16 Inherited change
16.1 The role of meiosis
16.2 Meiosis
16.3 Inherited change
16.4 Genetics – the study of inheritance
16.5 Monohybrid inheritance
16.6 The test cross
16.7 Codominance and multiple alleles
16.8 Dihybrid inheritance
16.9 Sex determination, sex linkage and autosomal linkage
16.10 Gene interaction
16.11 The chi-squared (χ2) test
16.12 Gene mutations
16.13 Effects of mutant alleles on the phenotype
16.14 Gene control – control of protein synthesis
16.15 Gene control – regulation of transcription
16 Examination and Practice Questions
17 Selection and evolution
17.1 Variation
17.2 Environment and phenotype
17.3 The t-test
17.4 Natural selection
17.5 The roles of over-production and variationin natural selection
17.6 How environmental factors act as forces of natural selection
17.7 Allelic frequencies
17.8 The processes affecting allelic frequencies
17.9 Isolation mechanisms in the evolution ofnew species
17.10 Selective breeding
17.11 Crop improvement by selective breeding
17.12 Adaptation of organisms to their environment
17 Examination and Practice Questions
18 Biodiversity, classification and conservation
18.1 Classification
18.2 Domains and kingdoms
18.3 Biodiversity
18.4 Ecosystems
18.5 Food chains and food webs
18.6 Energy transfer in ecosystems
18.7 The nitrogen cycle
18.8 Ecological techniques
18.9 Ecological analysis
18.10 Threats to biodiversity
18.11 Methods of protecting endangered species
18.12 Conservation
18 Examination and Practice Questions
19 Genetic technology
19.1 Identifying and isolating genes
19.2 DNA cloning – the polymerase chain reaction
19.3 Insertion of DNA fragment into a vector
19.4 Uptake of the plasmid vector by the host bacterium
19.5 Treating disease with proteins produced by DNA recombinant techniques
19.6 Ethical and social implications of genetic technology
19.7 Bioinformatics
19.8 Genetic Fingerprinting
19.9 Gene therapy
19.10 Genetic screening and counselling
19.11 Genetically modified organisms in agriculture
19 Examination and Practice Questions
Synoptic Questions
Answers to Summary Tests
Answers to Exam and Practice Questions
Answers to Synoptic Questions
Back Cover
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