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The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India, Volume 2

By R. V. (Robert Vane) Russell
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Table of Contents
  • The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India
  • Published Under the Orders of the Central Provinces Administration In Four Volumes Vol. II. Macmillan and Co., Limited St. Martin’s Street, London. 1916
  • Contents of Volume II
  • Articles on Castes and Tribes of the Central Provinces in Alphabetical Order
  • Illustrations in Volume II
  • Pronunciation
  • Part II
  • Articles on Castes and Tribes
  • Agaria—Fakīr
  • Agaria
    • 1. Origin and subdivisions.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Birth and death ceremonies.
    • 4. Religion and social customs.
    • 5. Occupation.
  • Agharia
    • 1. Origin.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage customs.
    • 4. Religious and social customs.
    • 5. Occupation.
  • Aghori
    • 1. General accounts of the caste.
    • 2. Instances of cannibalism.
  • Ahīr
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Former dominance of the Abhīras.
    • 3. Ahīr dialects.
    • 4. The Yādavas and Krishna.
    • 5. The modern Ahīrs an occupational caste.
    • 6. Subcastes.
    • 7. The Dauwa or wet-nurse Ahīrs. Fosterage.
    • 8. Exogamy.
    • 9. Marriage customs.
    • 10. Birth customs.
    • 11. Funeral rites. Bringing back the soul.
    • 12. Religion. Krishna and other deified cowherds.
    • 13. Caste deities.
    • 14. Other deities.
    • 15. The Diwāli festival.
    • 16. Omens.
    • 17. Social customs.
    • 18. Ornaments.
    • 19. Occupation.
    • 20. Preparations of milk.
  • Andh
  • Arakh
  • Atāri
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Marriage customs.
    • 3. Religion.
    • 4. Social customs.
  • Audhelia
    • 1. Origin.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Religion, birth and death.
  • Badhak
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Introductory notice.
    • 2. The Badhak dacoits.
    • 3. Instances of dacoities.
    • 4. Further instances of dacoities.
    • 5. Disguise of religious mendicants.
    • 6. Countenance and support of landowners.
    • 7. Pride in their profession.
    • 8. Caste rules and admission of outsiders.
    • 9. Religion: offerings to ancestors.
    • 10. The wounded haunted by spirits.
    • 11. Pious funeral observances.
    • 12. Taking the omens.
    • 13. Suppression of dacoity.
    • 14. The Badhaks or Baoris at the present time.
    • 15. Lizard-hunting.
    • 16. Social observances.
    • 17. Criminal practices.
  • Bahna
    • 1. Nomenclature and internal structure.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Religious and other customs.
    • 4. Occupation.
    • 5. Proverbs about Bahnas.
  • Baiga
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. The tribe and its offshoots.
    • 2. Tribal legends.
    • 3. Tribal subdivisions.
    • 4. Marriage.
    • 5. Birth and funeral rites.
    • 6. Religion.
    • 7. Appearance and mode of life.
    • 8. Dress and food.
    • 9. Occupation.
    • 10. Language.
  • Bairāgi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Definition of name and statistics.
    • 2. The four Sampradāyas or main orders.
    • 3. The Rāmānujis.
    • 4. The Rāmānandis
    • 5. The Nīmānandis.
    • 6. The Mādhavachāryas.
    • 7. The Vallabhachāryas.
    • 8. Minor sects.
    • 9. The seven Akhāras.
    • 10. The Dwāras.
    • 11. Initiation, appearance and customs.
    • 12. Recruitment of the order and its character.
    • 13. Social position and customs.
    • 14. Bairāgi monasteries.
    • 15. Married Bairāgis.
  • Balāhi
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Other customs.
  • Balija
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Occupation and social status.
  • Bania
    • List of Paragraphs
    • List of Subordinate Articles on Subcastes
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. The Banias a true caste: use of the name.
    • 3. Their distinctive occupation.
    • 4. Their distinctive status.
    • 5. The endogamous divisions of the Banias.
    • 6. The Banias derived from the Rājpūts.
    • 7. Banias employed as ministers in Rājpūt courts.
    • 8. Subcastes.
    • 9. Hindu and Jain subcastes: divisions among subcastes.
    • 10. Exogamy and rules regulating marriage.
    • 11. Marriage customs.
    • 12. Polygamy and widow-marriage.
    • 13. Disposal of the dead and mourning.
    • 14. Religion: the god Ganpati or Ganesh.
    • 15. Diwāli festival.
    • 16. Holi festival.
    • 17. Social customs: rules about food.
    • 18. Character of the Bania.
    • 19. Dislike of the cultivators towards him.
    • 20. His virtues.
    • 21. The moneylender changed for the worse.
    • 22. The enforcement of contracts.
    • 23. Cash coinage and the rate of interest.
    • 24. Proprietary and transferable rights in land.
    • 25. The Bania as a landlord.
    • 26. Commercial honesty.
  • Bania, Agarwāla
  • Bania, Agrahari
  • Bania, Ajudhiabāsi
  • Bania, Asāthi
  • Bania, Charnāgri
  • Bania, Dhūsar
  • Bania, Dosar
  • Bania, Gahoi
  • Bania, Golapūrab
  • Bania, Kasarwāni
  • Bania, Kasaundhan
  • Bania, Khandelwāl
  • Bania, Lād
  • Bania, Lingāyat
  • Bania, Maheshri
  • Bania, Nema
  • Bania, Oswāl
  • Bania, Parwār
    • 1. Origin.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Exogamy.
    • 4. Marriage customs.
    • 5. Religion: Hindu observances.
    • 6. Disposal of the dead.
    • 7. Social rules and customs.
  • Bania, Srimāli
  • Bania, Umre
  • Banjāra
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Historical notice of the caste.
    • 2. Banjāras derived from the Chārans or Bhāts.
    • 3. Chāran Ranjārans employed with the Mughal armies.
    • 4. Internal structure.
    • 5. Minor subcastes.
    • 6. Marriage: betrothal.
    • 7. Marriage.
    • 8. Widow remarriage.
    • 9. Birth and death.
    • 10. Religion: Banjāri Devi.
    • 11. Mīthu Bhūkia.
    • 12. Siva Bhāia.
    • 13. Worship of cattle.
    • 14. Connection with the Sikhs.
    • 15. Witchcraft.
    • 16. Human sacrifice.
    • 17. Admission of outsiders: kidnapped children and slaves.
    • 18. Dress.
    • 19. Social customs.
    • 20. The Nāik or headman. Banjāra dogs.
    • 21. Criminal tendencies of the caste.
    • 22. Their virtues.
  • Barai
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Caste subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage
    • 4. Religion and social status.
    • 5. Occupation.
  • Barhai
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Strength and local distribution.
    • 2. Internal structure.
    • 3. Marriage customs.
    • 4. Religion.
    • 5. Social position.
    • 6. Occupation.
  • Bāri
  • Basdewa
  • Basor
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Numbers and distribution.
    • 2. Caste traditions.
    • 3. Subdivisions.
    • 4. Marriage.
    • 5. Religion and social status.
    • 6. Occupation.
  • Bedar
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Subdivisions and marriage customs.
    • 3. Funeral rites.
  • Beldār
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Beldārs of the northern Districts.
    • 3. Odias of Chhattīsgarh.
    • 4. Other Chhattīsgarhi Beldārs.
    • 5. Munurwār and Telenga.
    • 6. Vaddar.
    • 7. Pāthrot.
    • 8. Takāri.
  • Beria, Bedia.
    • 1. Historical notice.
    • 2. Criminal tendencies in the Central Provinces.
    • 3. Social customs.
  • Bhaina
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. The tribe derived from the Baigas.
    • 2. Closely connected with the Kawars.
    • 3. Internal structure: Totemism.
    • 4. Marriage.
    • 5. Religious superstitions.
    • 6. Admission of outsiders and caste offences.
    • 7. Social customs.
  • Bhāmta or Bhāmtya
    • 1. Occupation.
    • 2. Subdivisions and marriage customs.
    • 3. Religion and social customs.
  • Bharbhūnja
    • 1. General notice
    • 2. Social customs.
    • 3. Occupation.
  • Bharia
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin and tribal legend.
    • 2. Tribal subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Childbirth.
    • 5. Funeral ceremonies.
    • 6. Religion and magic.
    • 7. Social life and customs.
    • 8. Occupation.
  • Bhāt
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin of the Bhāts.
    • 2. Bhāts and Chārans.
    • 3. Lower-class Bhāts.
    • 4. Social status of the caste.
    • 5. Social customs.
    • 6. The Bhāt’s business.
    • 7. Their extortionate practices.
    • 8. The Jasondhis.
    • 9. The Chārans as carriers.
    • 10. Suicide and the fear of ghosts.
    • 11. Instances of haunting and laying ghosts.
    • 12. The Chārans as sureties.
    • 13. Suicide as a means of revenge.
    • 14. Dharna.
    • 15. Casting out spirits.
    • 16. Sulking. Going bankrupt.
    • 17. Bhāt songs.
  • Bhatra
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice and structure of the caste.
    • 2. Admission of outsiders.
    • 3. Arrangement of marriages.
    • 4. The Counter of Posts.
    • 5. Marriage customs.
    • 6. Propitiation of ghosts.
    • 7. Religion. Ceremonies at hunting.
    • 8. Superstitious remedies.
    • 9. Occupation.
    • 10. Names.
  • Bhīl
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice. The Bhīls a Kolarian tribe.
    • 2. Rājpūts deriving their title to the land from the Bhīls.
    • 3. Historical notice.
    • 4. General Outram and the Khāndesh Bhīl Corps.
    • 5. Subdivisions.
    • 6. Exogamy and marriage customs.
    • 7. Widow—marriage, divorce and polygamy.
    • 8. Religion.
    • 9. Witchcraft and amulets.
    • 10. Funeral rites.
    • 11. Social customs.
    • 12. Appearance and characteristics.
    • 13. Occupation.
    • 14. Language.
  • Bhilāla
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Social customs.
    • 4. Occupation and character.
    • 5. Character.
  • Bhishti
  • Bhoyar
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Subcastes and sections.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Occupation.
    • 5. Social status.
  • Bhuiya
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. The tribe and its name.
    • 2. Distribution of the tribe.
    • 3. Example of the position of the aborigines in Hindu society.
    • 4. The Bhuiyas a Kolarian tribe.
    • 5. The Baigas and the Bhuiyas. Chhattīsgarh the home of the Baigas.
    • 6. The Baigas a branch of the Bhuiyas.
    • 7. Tribal sub-divisions.
    • 8. Exogamus septs.
    • 9. Marriage customs.
    • 10. Widow-marriage and divorce.
    • 11. Religion.
    • 12. Religious dancing.
    • 13. Funeral rites and inheritance.
    • 14. Physical appearance and occupation.
    • 15. Social customs.
  • Bhulia
  • Bhunjia
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Religion.
    • 5. Social rules.
  • Binjhwār
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin and tradition.
    • 2. Tribal subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. The marriage ceremony.
    • 5. Sexual morality.
    • 6. Disposal of the dead.
    • 7. Religion.
    • 8. Festivals.
    • 9. Social customs.
  • Bishnoi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin of the sect.
    • 2. Precepts of Jhāmbāji.
    • 3. Customs of the Bishnois in the Punjab.
    • 4. Initiation and baptism.
    • 5. Nature of the sect.
    • 6. Bishnois in the Central Provinces.
    • 7. Marriage.
    • 8. Disposal of the dead.
    • 9. Development into a caste.
  • Bohra
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin of the sect.
    • 2. Their religious tenets.
    • 3. The Mullahs.
    • 4. Bohra graveyards.
    • 5. Religious customs.
    • 6. Occupation.
    • 7. Houses and dress.
  • Brāhman1
    • List of Paragraphs
    • List of Subordinate Articles on Subcastes
    • 1. Origin and development of the caste.
    • 2. Their monopoly of literature.
    • 3. Absence of central authority.
    • 4. Mixed elements in the caste.
    • 5. Caste subdivisions.
    • 6. Miscellaneous groups.
    • 7. Sectarian divisions.
    • 8. Exogamy.
    • 9. Restrictions on marriage.
    • 10. Hypergamy.
    • 11. Marriage customs.
    • 12. Polygamy, divorce and treatment of widows.
    • 13. Sati or burning of widows.
    • 14. Funeral rites and mourning.
    • 15. Religion.
    • 16. Daily ritual.
    • 17. The sacred thread.
    • 18. Social position.
    • 19. Titles.
    • 20. Caste panchāyat and offences.
    • 21. Rules about food.
    • 22. Dress.
    • 23. Tattooing.
    • 24. Occupation.
    • 25. Character of Brāhmans.
  • Brāhman, Ahivāsi
  • Brāhman, Jijhotia
  • Brāhman, Kanaujia, Kanyakubja
  • Brāhman, Khedāwāl
  • Brāhman, Mahārāshtra
  • Brāhman, Maithil
  • Brāhman, Mālwi
  • Brāhman, Nāgar
  • Brāhman, Nāramdeo
  • Brāhman, Sanādhya
  • Brāhman, Sarwaria
  • Brāhman, Utkal
  • Chadār
  • Chamār
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice of the caste.
    • 2. Endogamous divisions.
    • 3. Subcastes continued.
    • 4. Exogamous divisions.
    • 5. Marriage.
    • 6. Widow-marriage and divorce.
    • 7. Funeral customs.
    • 8. Childbirth.
    • 9. Religion.
    • 10. Occupation.
    • 11. The tanning process.
    • 12. Shoes.
    • 13. Other articles made of leather.
    • 14. Customs connected with shoes.
    • 15. The Chamār as general village drudge.
    • 16. Social status.
    • 17. Character.
  • Chasa
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Exogamous divisions.
    • 3. Status and customs of the caste.
  • Chauhān
  • Chhīpa
    • 1. Constitution of the caste.
    • 2. Its origin and position.
    • 3. Caste subdivisions.
    • 4. Marriage and other customs.
    • 5. Occupation.
  • Chitāri
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Social customs.
    • 3. Birth and childhood.
    • 4. The evil eye.
    • 5. Cradle-songs.
    • 6. Occupation.
  • Chitrakathi
  • Cutchi
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Origin of the caste.
    • 3. Social customs.
  • Dahāit1
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin of the caste.
    • 2. Internal structure: totemism.
    • 3. Marriage and other customs.
    • 4. Social position.
    • 5. Former occupations: door-keeper and mace-bearer.
    • 6. The umbrella.
    • 7. Significance of the umbrella.
  • Daharia
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Sept and subsept.
    • 3. Social customs.
  • Dāngi
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Caste subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Religious and social customs.
    • 5. Occupation and character.
  • Dāngri
  • Darzi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Sewn clothes not formerly worn.
    • 4. Occupation.
    • 5. Religion.
  • Dewār
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage customs.
    • 4. Religion and social practices.
    • 5. Occupation.
  • Dhākar
    • 1. Origin and subdivisions.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Funeral rites.
    • 4. Occupation and social status.
  • Dhangar
    • 1. Traditions and structure of the caste.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Religion.
    • 4. Birth, death and social status.
    • 5. Occupation.
  • Dhānuk
    • 1. Original and classical records.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Social rank and customs.
  • Dhanwār
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Exogamous septs.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Festivities of the women of the bridegroom’s party.
    • 5. Conclusion of the marriage.
    • 6. Widow-marriage and divorce.
    • 7. Childbirth.
    • 8. Disposal of the dead.
    • 9. Religion.
    • 10. Magic and witchcraft.
    • 11. Social rules.
    • 12. Dress and tattooing.
    • 13. Names of children.
    • 14. Occupation.
  • Dhīmar1
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Subcastes.
    • 3. Exogamous groups.
    • 4. Marriage.
    • 5. Childbirth
    • 6. Disposal of the dead.
    • 7. Religion.
    • 8. Occupation: fisherman.
    • 9. Water-carrier.
    • 10. Palanquin-bearer and personal servant.
    • 11. Other occupations.
    • 12. Social status.
    • 13. Legend of the caste.
  • Dhoba
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Exogamous divisions.
    • 3. Marriage customs.
    • 4. Funeral rites.
    • 5. Caste panchāyat and social penalties.
    • 6. Occupation and social customs.
  • Dhobi
    • List of Paragraphs
    • 1. Character and structure of the caste.
    • 2. Marriage customs.
    • 3. Other social customs.
    • 4. Religion.
    • 5. Occupation: washing clothes.
    • 6. Social position.
    • 7. Proverbs about the Dhobi.
    • 8. Wearing and lending the clothes of customers.
  • Dhuri
    • 1. Origin and Subdivisions.
    • 2. Marriage.
    • 3. Religious beliefs.
    • 4. Occupation and social status.
  • Dumāl
    • 1. Origin and traditions.
    • 2. Subdivisions.
    • 3. Marriage.
    • 4. Religious and social customs.
  • Fakīr
    • 1. General notice.
    • 2. Principal orders.
    • 3. Rules and customs.
  • Table of Contents
  • Colophon
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