Biology for CAPE® Examinations
$29.35

Biology for CAPE® Examinations

By Claire Durant
US$ 29.35
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Book Description

This book provides all-inclusive coverage of Units 1 and 2 of the CAPE® Biology syllabus. It is also a suitable introductory text for tertiary students at Community Colleges and Universities.Key features:• Objectives and summaries at the beginning and end of each chapter aid planning focus learning and confirm syllabus coverage• Key terms are highlighted to develop vocabulary throughout the course• A wide variety of examples, illustrations and photographs from the Caribbean encourage interest in the local environment• In-text and review questions help students with difficult areas• Practical investigations clarify understanding and develop critical reasoning skills• Essential practical skills are developed through laboratory exercises• Study tips for biology tests and exams• Grading criteria for Internal Assessment Skills suggested for teachersAbout the authorDr Claire Durant MRSC received her doctorate as a Commonwealth Scholar at Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London. Dr. Durant has twelve years of teaching experience at the secondary and tertiary level in the Caribbean and abroad. Please note that this is an eBook version of this title and can NOT be printed. For more information about eBooks, including how to download the software you’ll need, see our FAQs page.

Table of Contents
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Unit 1 Biomolecules, reproduction and development
    • Module 1 Cell and molecular biology
      • Chapter 1 Elementary biochemistry
        • Learning objectives
        • Water
        • Acids, bases, the pH scale and buffers
        • Chemical structure and function of carbohydrates
        • Importance of glucose, sucrose, starch, glycogen and cellulose
        • Carbohydrates as organic building blocks
        • Chemical structure and function of proteins
        • Importance of haemoglobin and collagen
        • Chemical structure and functions of lipids
        • Chemical structure and function of phospholipids
        • Testing for reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar, starch, lipid and protein
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 2 Cell structure and function
        • Learning objectives
        • Comparison of the light microscope and the electron microscope
        • Prokaryotes and eukaryotes
        • Features of the typical prokaryotic cell
        • Features of the typical eukaryotic cell
        • Structure and function of organelles
        • Endosymbiont theory
        • The fluid mosaic model of membrane structure
        • Movement of substances across biological membranes
        • Tissues and organs
        • Cell communication
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 3 Enzymes and metabolic reactions in cells
        • Learning objectives
        • Factors affecting chemical reactions
        • Catalysts
        • Enzymes are the catalysis of metabolic reactions
        • Mode of action of enzymes
        • Induced-fit hypothesis
        • Enzyme specificity
        • Factors affecting enzyme activity
        • Enzyme regulation
        • Enzyme inhibitors
        • Practical applications of enzymes
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
    • Module 2 Genetics, variation and natural selection
      • Chapter 4 Structure and roles of nucleic acids
        • Learning objectives
        • Chemical structure and function of nucleotides
        • Structure and function of deoxyribonucleic acid
        • Expression of genetic information and the genetic code
        • DNA replication
        • DNA proof-reading and repair
        • Structure and function of ribonucleic acid
        • Protein synthesis
        • The link between DNA, chromatin and chromosomes
        • Applications of the principles of DNA replication
        • Genetic control of phenotype
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 5 Mitosis and meiosis
        • Learning objectives
        • The importance of mitosis
        • The maintenance of genetic stability
        • The stages of mitosis
        • The importance of the haploid and diploid numbers
        • The stages of meiosis
        • Genetic variability and meiosis
        • Abnormalities in cell division
        • Down syndrome
        • Cancer as a genetic disorder
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 6 Patterns of inheritance
        • Learning objectives
        • The basis of Mendelian genetics
        • Monohybrid crosses
        • Law of segregation
        • Law of independent assortment
        • Dihybrid crosses
        • Analysing, interpreting and understanding genetic experiments
        • Basic rules of probability
        • The chi-squared test
        • Incomplete dominance, codominance, epistasis, hybrid vigour and sex-linked inheritance
        • Mendelian inheritance in humans
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 7 Genetic engineering
        • Learning objectives
        • Principles of biotechnology
        • Isolating and cloning genes
        • Applications and techniques of genetic engineering in plants
        • Recombinant DNA applications in medicine
        • Human gene therapy
        • Human Genome Project
        • Transgenic plants
        • Transgenic animals
        • Transgenic microorganisms
        • Ecological concerns about genetically modified organisms
        • Implications of using GMOs
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 8 Variation and natural selection
        • Learning objectives
        • Sexual reproduction as a mechanism to introduce genetic variation
        • Phenotypic effects of mutations: sickle cell anaemia, phenylketonuria, cystic fibrosis
        • Natural selection and evolution
        • Artificial selection and agriculture
        • Selection in natural populations
        • Types and causes of gene mutation
        • Environmental factors as forces of natural selection
        • Mechanisms of natural selection
        • The biological species concept
        • The process of speciation
        • Mechanisms of reproductive isolation of species
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
    • Module 3 Reproductive biology
      • Chapter 9 Asexual reproduction and vegetative propagation
        • Learning objectives
        • Types of asexual reproduction
        • Principles and importance of vegetative propagation
        • Techniques and applications of tissue culture
        • Genetic consequences of asexual reproduction
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 10 Sexual reproduction in the flowering plant
        • Learning objectives
        • Structure and function of flowers
        • Pollination and fertilisation
        • Mechanism of self-fertilisation and cross-fertilisation
        • Fruit and seed development
        • Fruit and seed dispersal
        • Genetic consequences of sexual reproduction
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 11 Sexual reproduction in humans
        • Learning objectives
        • Sexual reproduction
        • The male reproductive system
        • The female reproductive system
        • The ovarian cycle
        • The uterine cycle
        • Fertilisation and implantation
        • Structure and function of the placenta
        • Pregnancy
        • Methods of birth control
        • Sexually transmitted diseases
        • Artificial insemination
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
  • Unit 2 Bioenergetics, biosystems and applications
    • Module 1 Bioenergetics
      • Chapter 12 Photosynthesis
        • Learning objectives
        • Anatomy and function of leaves
        • Structure and function of chloroplasts
        • The light-dependent stage of photosynthesis
        • Pigments of photosynthesis and their action spectra
        • ATP synthesis
        • The Calvin cycle is light independent
        • Factors affecting photosynthesis
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 13 Cellular respiration
        • Learning objectives
        • Overview of aerobic respiration
        • Steps of glycolysis and the formation of acetyl-CoA
        • Structure and function of mitochondria
        • The Krebs cycle
        • The electron transport chain
        • ATP synthesis
        • Energy yield from aerobic respiration
        • Anaerobic respiration: lactate fermentation and alcohol fermentation
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 14 Energy flow and nutrient cycling
        • Learning objectives
        • Ecosystems, habitats and ecological niches
        • Energy flows in ecosystems
        • Energy losses at different trophic levels
        • Biomass
        • Biological pyramids
        • Composting
        • The nitrogen cycle
        • Ecosystems as self-sustaining units
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 15 Ecological systems, biodiversity and conservation
        • Learning objectives
        • The dynamics of ecosystems
        • Biodiversity
        • The importance of maintaining biodiversity
        • Factors contributing to loss of biodiversity
        • In situ and ex situ conservation
        • Conservation in the Caribbean
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
    • Module 2 Biosystems maintenance
      • Chapter 16 Uptake and transport of water, minerals and products of photosynthesis
        • Learning objectives
        • Overview of transport in plants
        • Overview of plant nutrition
        • Structure and function of roots
        • Structure and function of xylem
        • Water movement in plants: transpiration and the cohesion–tension theory
        • Structure and function of phloem
        • Transport of sugars in phloem: pressure flow theory
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 17 Circulatory system of mammals
        • Learning objectives
        • Overview of mammalian circulation
        • Anatomy of the heart
        • The cardiac cycle
        • Composition and function of blood
        • Structure and function of blood vessels
        • Regulation of blood pressure
        • Capillary exchange
        • Cardiovascular disease
        • Overview of the respiratory tract
        • Principles of gas exchange
        • Transport of carbon dioxide and oxygen
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 18 Homeostasis and hormonal action
        • Learning objectives
        • Homeostasis
        • Principles of hormonal action
        • The human endocrine system
        • Functions of insulin and glucagon
        • Plant hormones: ethylene
        • Commercial use of plant hormones
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 19 Nervous coordination
        • Learning objectives
        • Differences between endocrine and nervous communication
        • Overview of nervous communication
        • Organisation of the nervous system
        • Structure and function of neurones
        • The resting potential
        • Propagation of an action potential
        • Synapses and neurotransmitters
        • Postsynaptic potentials: temporal summation and spatial summation
        • Effects of drugs and nerve agents on the nervous system
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 20 The kidney, excretion and osmoregulation
        • Learning objectives
        • Osmoregulation
        • Overview of the urinary system
        • Structure and function of the kidney
        • Urine production
        • Hormonal regulation of kidney function
        • Dialysis, kidney transplants and kidney stones
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
    • Module 3 Applications of biology
      • Chapter 21 Immunology
        • Learning objectives
        • Overview of the immune system
        • Innate immunity and acquired immunity
        • Overview of the lymphatic system
        • Barriers and non-specific defences (cellular innate defences)
        • Specific defences: immunity
        • Immunoglobulins
        • The structure and function of the B cell and T cell antigen-specific receptors
        • Clonal selection
        • Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses
        • Active immunity, passive immunity and vaccination
        • Antibodies in medicine
        • Allergic reactions
        • ABO blood typing system and the Rhesus factor
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 22 Health and disease
        • Learning objectives
        • Maintenance of health
        • Effects of diet and exercise on the body
        • Categorisation of diseases
        • Incidence rates and mortality rates
        • Chronic non-communicable diseases
        • HIV/AIDS
        • Dengue
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 23 Substance abuse
        • Learning objectives
        • Drug use
        • Effects of alcohol consumption on the body
        • Alcohol and violence
        • Alcohol and driving
        • Effects of cigarette smoking on the body
        • Investigations
        • Summary
        • Review questions
        • Answers to ITQs
      • Chapter 24 Practical biology and school-based assessments
        • Techniques for biological drawing
        • Calculating magnification
        • How to use a microscope
        • Preparing a wet mount microscope slide
        • Microscopy measurement
        • Graphical representation of data
        • Planning and designing experiments
        • Data collection and analysis
        • Organising and presenting a report
        • How to plan and design an experiment
        • Study tips for biology tests and exams
        • Examples of experiments
        • Examples of x2 calculations
        • Examples of assessment criteria
  • Selected bibliography
  • Index
  • Back Cover
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