# Physics for CAPE® Examinations

Physics for CAPE® Examinations provides comprehensive coverage of Units 1 and 2 of the CAPE Physics syllabus. A non-calculus treatment of Physics, it has been written to facilitate a smooth transition from high school to tertiary level Physics at regional and international institutions.

The text encourages the ability to apply scientific methods to a range of academic and everyday problems, and sensitises students to pressing global and regional issues such as energy and the environment.

Key features:

• Worked examples and in-text questions help to build understanding and provoke analytical thought

• Practical exercises encourage students to use their knowledge of Physics to plan, carry out, and evaluate their work

• Review questions (including answers) at the end of each chapter test knowledge and how to apply it

• A focus on digital logic and electronics will support students looking to move forwards into engineering

• The School-Based Assessment section gives step-by-step tips to maximise CAPE coursework success

• The Appendix includes a review of mathematics skills required for the course

Authors

Alec Farley BA (Physics), MS (Physics), Diploma in Advanced Studies in Science

Education, has served as Education Officer, Science and Mathematics within the Ministry of Education, Guyana and has been the head of both Mathematics and Physics departments in the region. He lectured in Physics and later became Assistant Professor and Head of the Physics Department at The College of The Bahamas.

David Glover PhD, BSc, MInstP held research and teaching posts at the Central Electricity

Generating Board, the Cavendish Laboratory, the Open University and Cambridge College of Arts and Technology before becoming a full time science education author. He has written an extensive range of international science text books.

Please note that this is an eBook version of this title and can NOT be printed. For more information about eBooks, including how to download the software you’ll need, see our FAQs page.

- Cover
- Title page
- Copyright
- Contents
- Preface
- UNIT 1 Mechanics, waves, properties of matter
- Module 1 Mechanics
- Chapter 1 Physical quantities and units
- Why measurement?
- The International System of Units (S.I.)
- The neutrino experiment
- Issues in scientific measurement
- Revisiting the ‘speed of light’ and ‘the speed of the neutrino’ experiments
- Calibrating an instrument
- Graphical analysis
- Vector and scalar quantities
- Calculations involving vector quantities
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 2 Linear motion and projectile motion
- Linear motion and projectile motion
- Position, distance and displacement
- Speed and velocity
- Acceleration
- Equations of motion for constant acceleration
- Graphs of motion
- Projectile motion
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs

- Chapter 3 Forces and motion
- Aristotle, Galileo and Newton
- Newton’s first law of motion
- Newton’s second law of motion
- Newton’s third law of motion
- Newton’s laws and frictional forces
- Newton’s laws and upthrust forces in fluids
- Newton’s laws and resistive forces in fluids
- Static and dynamic equilibrium
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 4 Work, energy and power
- Work and energy
- Kinetic energy
- Potential energy
- Conservation of energy
- Power
- Sources of energy
- Electrical power generation, distribution and consumption
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 5 Momentum and collisions
- Linear momentum
- Linear momentum and impulse
- Force versus time graphs
- Practical applications of the impulse concept
- Conservation of linear momentum
- Elastic and inelastic collisions
- Discovery of the neutron
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 6 Circular motion and gravitation
- Kinematics of uniform circular motion
- Dynamics of uniform circular motion
- Dynamics of gravitational motion
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Module 2 Oscillations and waves
- Chapter 7 Harmonic oscillations
- Simple harmonic motion (SHM)
- The equations of SHM
- Mass–spring oscillators
- The simple pendulum
- Forced oscillations and resonance
- Damped oscillations
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 8 Waves and their behaviours
- Waves and energy transfer
- Terms used in describing waves
- Transverse and longitudinal waves
- Progressive and stationary waves
- Behaviours shown by waves
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 9 Light: rays and waves
- Ray and wave optics
- Propagation of light
- Reflection from plane surfaces
- Refraction at plane surfaces
- Refraction at curved surfaces
- Lens usage in optical instruments
- Diffraction of light
- Polarization of light
- Position of light in the electromagnetic spectrum
- Light: rays or waves?
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 10 Sound
- Describing sound
- Sound waves
- Response of the human ear to sound levels
- Musical instruments
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Module 3 Thermal and mechanical properties of matter
- Chapter 11 Thermometry
- Introduction
- Thermodynamic interpretation of temperature
- Temperature scales
- Variation of physical properties with temperature
- Practical thermometers: design and usage
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 12 Thermal properties of matter
- Introduction
- Heat and internal energy
- Specific heat capacity
- Determination of specific heat capacity by method of mixtures
- Determination of specific heat capacity by electrical methods
- Specific latent heat
- Determination of specific latent heat by method of mixtures
- Determination of specific latent heat by electrical methods
- Boiling and evaporation
- Practical importance of thermal properties
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 13 Heat transfer
- Introduction
- Thermal conduction
- Thermal convection
- Thermal radiation
- Applications involving energy transfer
- Heating and keeping cool in the Caribbean
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical activities and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 14 Kinetic theory of gases
- Basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases
- Gas pressure and the kinetic theory
- Equation of state for an ideal gas
- Gas temperature and the kinetic theory
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 15 First law of thermodynamics
- First law of thermodynamics
- The first law and thermodynamics processes
- Molar specific heat capacities of a gas
- Efficiency of a cycle
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 16 Mechanical properties of matter
- A simple kinetic model of matter
- Solids, liquids and gases
- Density of materials
- Crystalline and amorphous solids
- Crystalline solids
- Amorphous solids
- Glasses and ceramics
- Elasticity in solids
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 1 Physical quantities and units

- Module 1 Mechanics
- UNIT 2 Electricity and magnetism, a.c. theory and electronics, atomic and nuclear physics
- Module 1 Electricity and magnetism
- Chapter 17 Electric charges and fields
- Static electricity
- Conductors and insulators
- Charging and discharging
- Hazards of static electricity
- Applications of static electricity
- Electric forces
- Electric fields
- Motion of charged particles in an electric field
- Electric potential
- Potential difference
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 18 Capacitors
- Capacitance
- Factors affecting capacitance
- Capacitors in practical usage
- Capacitor construction
- Arrangements of capacitors
- Capacitor charging and discharging (RC circuits)
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 19 Current electricity and electrical circuits
- Circuit principles
- Ohm’s law
- Electrical power equations
- Resistivity
- Theory of electrical conduction in a metal
- Internal resistance
- Circuit calculations and Kirchhoff’s laws
- Resistors in series and parallel
- The potential divider
- The Wheatstone bridge
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 20 Magnetic fields and their effects
- Magnetic fields
- The strength of a magnetic field: flux density
- Force on a current-carrying conductor
- Force on a moving charged particle
- The Hall effect
- The force between current-carrying conductors
- Electromagnets
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 21 Electromagnetic induction
- Induced e.m.f.
- Magnetic flux
- Faraday’s law
- The e.m.f. induced in a straight conductor moving through a magnetic field
- Applications of electromagnetic induction
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Module 2 A.c. theory and electronics
- Chapter 22 Simple semiconductor devices
- Voltage and current sources
- Conductors, semiconductors and insulators
- The p-n junction diode
- The p-n junction transistor
- Transducer usage in electronic circuits
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 23 Operational amplifiers
- The operational amplifier
- The ideal operational amplifier
- Real operational amplifiers
- Op-amp in open loop mode
- Open loop circuit applications
- Op-amp in closed loop modes
- Closed loop (inverting) applications
- Real operational amplifiers: closed loop (non-inverting) configurations
- Impedance matching
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 24 Logic gates
- Logic gates
- Types of logic gates
- Equivalents of combinations of gates of different types
- Equivalents of combinations of gates of the same type
- Control by combinations of logic gates
- Binary addition using logic gates
- Timing diagrams and logic gates
- Bistable circuit
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Module 3 Atomic and nuclear physics
- Chapter 25 Atomic structure
- Atomic theory
- The Millikan oil drop experiment
- Models of the atom
- Atomic spectra
- The atomic nucleus
- X-rays
- Medical uses of X-rays
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 26 Radioactivity
- Historical introduction
- Nuclear instability
- Types of radiations and their properties
- Equations of nuclear decay
- Radiation hazards
- Radioactive decay laws
- Applications of radioisotopes
- Detectors of radiation
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 27 Energy from the nucleus
- Introduction to nuclear energy
- Mass defect and binding energy
- Nuclear energy: units and calculations
- Binding energy per nucleon
- Fission and fusion
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 28 The photoelectric effect and wave–particle duality
- Photons: E = hf
- The photoelectric effect
- Investigating the photoelectric effect
- The Einstein equation
- Applications of the photoelectric effect
- Matter waves
- Summary
- Review questions
- Practical exercises and challenges
- Answers to ITQs
- Answers to Review questions

- Chapter 17 Electric charges and fields

- Module 1 Electricity and magnetism
- CAPE SBA
- Appendix
- Appendix 1: Base unit definitions in the S.I.
- Appendix 2: Prefixes and conversions
- Appendix 3: Mathematics help

- Index
- Back Cover