Human Foods and Their Nutritive Value
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Human Foods and Their Nutritive Value

By Harry Snyder
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  • The Project Gutenberg eBook, Human Foods and Their Nutritive Value, by Harry Snyder
    • E-text prepared by Juliet Sutherland, Janet Blenkinship, and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team (http://www.pgdp.net)
  • HUMAN FOODS AND THEIR NUTRITIVE VALUE
    • BY
    • HARRY SNYDER, B.S.
    • PREFACE
    • CONTENTS
    • HUMAN FOODS AND THEIR NUTRITIVE VALUE
    • CHAPTER I
      • GENERAL COMPOSITION OF FOODS
        • Fig. 1.—Apparatus used for the Determination of Dry Matter and Ash in Foods.
        • 1, desiccator; 2, muffle furnace for combustion of foods and obtaining ash; 3, water oven for drying food materials.
        • NON-NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS
        • Fig. 2.—Cellular Structure of Plant Cell.
        • Fig. 3.—Apparatus used for the Determination of Fat.
        • NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS
        • Fig. 4.—Apparatus used for Determining Total Nitrogen and Crude Protein in Foods.
        • Fig. 5.—Graphic Composition of Flour.
        • 1, flour; 2, starch; 3, gluten; 4, water; 5, fat; 6, ash.
    • CHAPTER II
      • CHANGES IN COMPOSITION OF FOODS DURING COOKING AND PREPARATION
        • Fig. 6.—Cells of a Partially Cooked Potato. (After König.)
        • Fig. 7.—Cells of Raw Potato, Showing Starch Grains. (After König.)
        • Fig. 8.—Lactic Acid Bacteria, Much Enlarged. (After Russell.)
    • CHAPTER III
      • VEGETABLE FOODS
        • Fig. 9.—Transverse Section of Potato. (After Cowden and Bussard.) a, skin; b, cortical layer; c, outer medullary layer; d, inner medullary layer.
        • Mechanical Composition of the Potato
        • Chemical Composition of the Potato
        • Fig. 10.—Graphic Composition of Cabbage.
        • Fig. 11.—Graphic Composition Of Tomato.
    • CHAPTER IV
      • FRUITS, FLAVORS, AND EXTRACTS
        • Composition of Fruits
        • Fig. 12.—Graphic Composition of Apple.
        • Fig. 13.—Graphic Composition of Orange.
        • Fig. 14.—Graphic Composition of Strawberry.
    • CHAPTER V
      • SUGARS, MOLASSES, SYRUP, HONEY, AND CONFECTIONS
        • Fig. 15.—Sugar Crystals.
        • Fig. 16.—Nutrients of a Ration With Sugar. The hacket parts represent the proportion of nutrients not digested.
        • Fig. 17.—Nutrients of a Ration Without Sugar. The hacket parts represent the proportion of nutrients not digested.
        • Fig. 18.—Graphic Composition of Syrup.
    • CHAPTER VI
      • LEGUMES AND NUTS
        • Fig. 19.—Graphic Composition of Beans. Hacked Part Indigestible.
        • Fig. 20.—Beans, Raw and Cooked. Skins, Wet and Dry.
        • Fig. 21.—Pea Starch Granules.
        • NUTS
        • Average Composition of Nuts
    • CHAPTER VII
      • MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS
        • Fig. 22.—Milk Fat Globules.
        • Fig. 23.—Dirt in a Sample of Unsanitary Milk.
        • Fig. 24.—Pasteurizing Milk.
        • Fig. 25.—Apparatus Used in Testing Milk.
        • 1, pipette; 2, lactometer; 3, acid measure; 4, centrifuge; 5, test bottle.
        • BUTTER
        • CHEESE
    • CHAPTER VIII
      • MEATS AND ANIMAL FOOD PRODUCTS
        • Fig. 26.—Meat and Extractive Substances.
        • Fig. 27.—Standard Cuts of Beef.
        • Fig. 28.—Standard Cuts of Mutton.
        • Fig. 29.—Standard Cuts of Pork.
        • Fig. 30.—Graphic Composition of an Egg.
        • CANNED MEATS
    • CHAPTER IX
      • CEREALS
        • Fig. 31.—Corn Starch.
        • Fig. 32.—Oat Starch Granules.
        • Fig. 33.—Wheat Starch Grains.
        • Fig. 34.—Barley Starch.
        • Fig. 35.—Rice Starch.
        • Total and Digestible Nutrients and Fuel Value of Cereals
    • CHAPTER X
      • WHEAT FLOUR
        • Fig. 36.—Starchy (light-colored) and Glutinous (dark-colored) Wheats.
        • Fig. 37.—Longitudinal Section of Wheat Kernel: a, pericarp; b, bran layers; c, aleurone cells; d, germ. (After König.)
        • Summary:
        • Composition of Wheat Flour
        • Fig. 38.—Granular Wheat Flour Particles.
        • Fig. 39.—Exterior of Flour Mill and Wheat Elevator.
        • Fig. 40.—Grinding Floor of Flour Mill, Russell-Miller Milling Co., Minneapolis, Minn.
        • Fig. 41.—Silk Bolting Cloth Used in Manufacture of Flour, Magnified.
        • Composition, Acidity, and Heats of Combustion of Flours And Other Milled Products of Wheat
        • Fig. 42.—Flour and Gluten.
        • 1, flour; 2, dough; 3, moist gluten; 4, dry gluten.
        • Fig. 43.—Fungous Growth in Unsound Flour.
        • Fig. 44.—Comparative Baking Tests.
        • Fig. 45.—Wheat Hairs and Débris in Low Grade Flours.
    • CHAPTER XI
      • BREAD AND BREAD MAKING
        • Fig. 46.—Brewers' Yeast.
        • Fig. 47.—Wheat Starch Granules after Fermentation with Yeast, as in Bread Making.
        • Fig. 48.—Apparatus Used in Study of Losses in Bread Making.
        • Fig. 49.—Bread from Normal Flour (1); Gliadin Extracted Flour (2); and from Flour after Extraction of Sugar and Soluble Proteids (3).
        • Influence of Addition of Starch and Gluten to Flour
        • Composition of Flour, and Bread Made from it in Different Ways
        • Fig. 50.-Bread from (1) Graham, (2) Entire Wheat, and (3) White Flour.
        • The same amounts of flour were used in making all of the breads.
    • CHAPTER XII
      • BAKING POWDERS
        • Fig. 51.—Ingredients of a Baking Powder.
        • 1, baking powder; 2, cream of tartar; 3, baking soda; 4, starch.
    • CHAPTER XIII
      • VINEGAR, SPICES, AND CONDIMENTS
        • Fig. 52.—Acetic Acid Ferments. (After König.)
    • CHAPTER XIV
      • TEA, COFFEE, CHOCOLATE, AND COCOA
        • Fig. 53.—Tea Leaf. (After Winton.)
        • Fig. 54.—Coffee Berries.
        • 1, Mocha; 2, Java; 3, Rio.
    • CHAPTER XV
      • THE DIGESTIBILITY OF FOODS
        • Statement of Results of a Digestion Experiment
        • Fig. 55.—Calorimeter.
    • CHAPTER XVI
      • COMPARATIVE COST AND VALUE OF FOODS
        • Fig. 56.—Composition of Foods.
        • Fig. 57.—Pecuniary Economy of Food.
        • Ten Cents will Purchase:
      • EXAMPLES
        • Average Composition of Common American Food Products
    • CHAPTER XVII
      • DIETARY STUDIES
        • Fig. 58.—Dietaries and Dietary Standards.
        • Food Consumed, One Week
        • Fig. 59.—Cost and Nutritive Value of Rations.
        • Nutrients in Foods Consumed.—Family No. 1
        • Family No. 2
    • CHAPTER XVIII
      • RATIONAL FEEDING OF MAN
        • Fig. 60.—Food Articles for a Human Ration.
        • Ration for Man at Moderate Work
      • EXAMPLES
    • CHAPTER XIX
      • WATER
        • Fig. 61.—Dirt and Impurities in a Surface Well Water.
        • Fig. 62.—Pasteur Water Filters.
        • Fig. 63.—Water Still.
        • Fig. 64.—Typhoid Bacilli.
    • CHAPTER XX
      • FOOD AS AFFECTED BY HOUSEHOLD SANITATION AND STORAGE
        • Fig. 65.—Tuberculosis Bacilli. (After Conn.)
        • Often present in dust particles and contaminated foods.
        • Fig. 66.—Diphtheria Bacilli. (After Conn.)
        • Often present in dust particles and in food unprotected from dust.
        • Fig. 67.—Dung Fungus. (After Butters.)
        • Often present on surface of unclean vegetables.
        • Fig. 68.—Dirt and Manure Embedded In Surface of Celery.
        • Fig. 69.—Contamination of Well Water From Surface Drainage.
        • Fig. 70.—Plumbing of Sink.
        • 1, 1, house side of trap, filled with water; 2, vent pipe; 3, drain pipe connecting with sewer.
        • Fig. 71.—A Petri Dish, Showing Colonies of Bacteria Produced By Allowing a House Fly To Crawl Over Surface.
    • CHAPTER XXI
      • LABORATORY PRACTICE
        • Fig. 72.—Apparatus used in Laboratory Work. See page 301 for names.
        • Fig. 73.—Balance and Weights.
        • List of Apparatus used in Experiments
        • Fig. 74.
        • Fig. 75.—Pouring Reagent from Bottle.
        • Fig. 76.—Microscope and Accessories.
        • 1, eye-piece or ocular; 2, objective; 3, stage; 4, cover glass; 5, slide; 6, mirror.
      • Experiment No. 1
        • Water in Flour
      • Experiment No. 2
        • Water in Butter
      • Experiment No. 3
        • Ash in Flour
      • Experiment No. 4
        • Nitric Acid Test for Nitrogenous Organic Matter
      • Experiment No. 5
        • Acidity of Lemons
      • Experiment No. 6
        • Influence of Heat on Potato Starch Grains
      • Experiment No. 7
        • Influence of Yeast on Starch Grains
      • Experiment No. 8
        • Mechanical Composition of Potatoes
      • Experiment No. 9
        • Pectose from Apples
      • Experiment No. 10
        • Lemon Extract
      • Experiment No. 11
        • Vanilla Extract
      • Experiment No. 12
        • Testing Olive Oil for Cotton Seed Oil
      • Experiment No. 13
        • Testing for Coal Tar Dyes
      • Experiment No. 14
        • Determining the Per Cent of Skin in Beans
      • Experiment No. 15
        • Extraction of Fat from Peanuts
      • Experiment No. 16
        • Microscopic Examination of Milk
      • Experiment No. 17
        • Formaldehyde in Cream or Milk
      • Experiment No. 18
        • Gelatine in Cream or Milk
      • Experiment No. 19
        • Testing for Oleomargarine
      • Experiment No. 20
        • Testing for Watering or Skimming of Milk
      • Experiment No. 21
        • Boric Acid in Meat
      • Experiment No. 22
        • Microscopic Examination of Cereal Starch Grains
      • Experiment No. 23
        • Identification of Commercial Cereals
      • Experiment No. 24
        • Granulation and Color of Flour
      • Experiment No. 25
        • Capacity of Flour to absorb Water
      • Experiment No. 26
        • Acidity of Flour
      • Experiment No. 27
        • Moist and Dry Gluten
      • Experiment No. 28
        • Gliadin from Flour
      • Experiment No. 29
        • Bread-making Test
      • Experiment No. 30
        • Microscopic Examination of Yeast
      • Experiment No. 31
        • Testing Baking Powders for Alum
      • Experiment No. 32
        • Testing Baking Powders for Phosphoric Acid
      • Experiment No. 33
        • Testing Baking Powders for Ammonia
      • Experiment No. 34
        • Vinegar Solids
      • Experiment No. 35
        • Specific Gravity of Vinegar
      • Experiment No. 36
        • Acidity of Vinegar
      • Experiment No. 37
        • Deportment of Vinegar with Reagents
      • Experiment No. 38
        • Testing Mustard for Turmeric
      • Experiment No. 39
        • Examination of Tea Leaves
      • Experiment No. 40
        • Action of Iron Compounds upon Tannic Acid
      • Experiment No. 41
        • Identification of Coffee Berries
      • Experiment No. 42
        • Detecting Chicory in Coffee
      • Experiment No. 43
        • Testing Hard and Soft Waters
      • Experiment No. 44
        • Solvent Action of Water on Lead
      • Experiment No. 45
        • Suspended Matter in Water
      • Experiment No. 46
        • Organic Matter in Water
      • Experiment No. 47
        • Deposition of Lime by Boiling Water
      • Experiment No. 48
        • Qualitative Tests for Minerals in Water
      • Experiment No. 49
        • Testing for Nitrites in Water
        • Reagents Used
    • REVIEW QUESTIONS
      • CHAPTER I
        • General Composition of Foods
      • CHAPTER II
        • Changes in Composition of Foods During Cooking and Preparation
      • CHAPTER III
        • Vegetable Foods
      • CHAPTER IV
        • Fruits
      • CHAPTER V
        • Sugar, Molasses, Sirups, Honey, and Confections
      • CHAPTER VI
        • Legumes and Nuts
      • CHAPTER VII
        • Milk and Dairy Products
      • CHAPTER VIII
        • Meats and Animal Food Products
      • CHAPTER IX
        • Cereals
      • CHAPTER X
        • Wheat Flour
      • CHAPTER XI
        • Bread and Bread Making
      • CHAPTER XII
        • Baking Powders
      • CHAPTER XIII
        • Vinegars, Spices, and Condiments
      • CHAPTER XIV
        • Tea, Coffee, Chocolate, and Cocoa
      • CHAPTER XV
        • Digestibility of Foods
      • CHAPTER XVI
        • Comparative Cost and Value of Foods
      • CHAPTER XVII
        • Dietary Studies
      • CHAPTER XVIII
        • Rational Feeding of Man
      • CHAPTER XIX
        • Water
      • CHAPTER XX
        • Food in its Relation to Household Sanitation and Storage
    • REFERENCES
    • INDEX
      • Professor of Agricultural Chemistry, University of Minnesota, and Chemist of the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station
      • The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Life
      • Dairy Chemistry
      • Soils and Fertilizers
    • BOOKS ON AGRICULTURE
    • Cyclopedia of American Agriculture
      • Edited by L. H. BAILEY
        • WITH 100 FULL-PAGE PLATES AND MORE THAN 2000 ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT—FOUR VOLUMES—THE SET: CLOTH, $20 NET—HALF MOROCCO, $32 NET—CARRIAGE EXTRA
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